1500s: One Hundred Years of Activity in Europe and Newfoundland fishery/Baccalaos/Terre Neuve/Terra de Corte Real

Whale-Dive-Small

“Whale-Dive-Small.gif.” Source: Wikimedia Commons, attributed to Hersfold at en.wikipedia [CC-BY-SA-2.5 (www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5)]

North Americans

Europeans [and occasional American ‘visitors’]

Date American Contact Zones & Activity European Commerce European Politics European Bodies & Souls
1475 Hanseatic League limits access to Icelandic cod Plague in Italy
1479 Ferdinand II, king of Aragon; consort of Castile [Isabella]; king of proto-Spain Spanish inquisition & auto da fe heretic eradication
1485 Henry VII, king of England (ties to Brittany) ‘sweating sickness’ strikes England
1492 New Pathogens introduced to Americas Spain completes Muslim & Jewish expulsion
1493 Inter Caeters: Pope Alexander VI divides ‘discovered’ lands for Spain & Portugal
1494 Tordesillas Treaty: Portugal gets the ‘new found isle’. 

n

Italian Wars start (involving: France, Spain, Holy Roman Empire, England, Scotland, Republic of Venice, Papal States, Italian city-states, Ottoman Empire)

phrase ‘New World’ appears in document for 1st time

n

Date American Contact Zones & Activity European  Commerce European Politics European Bodies & Souls
1495 Manuel I, king of Portugal 

n

Italian Wars continue

Great Pox begins spread in Europe
1497 Cabot finds and claims new found land “before this time … unknown to all Christians” Italian Wars continue Plague in Italy
1498 Louis XII, king of France Plague in Germany, Low Countries, England

1500

Labrador Inuit begin meeting Europeans 

n

Corte-Reals take Aboriginal captives

100 years of running inflation begins Italian Wars continue Medieval Church enters ‘crisis period’
1504 Bretons at Avalon (dry fishery) Channel Ports send ships to Newfoundland 

n

inflation continues

Italian Wars continue
1506 Normans fish, though mainly by financing Breton fishers 

n

Portuguese migrant fishery, Terra Nova (Strait of Belle Isle to New England)

Normans finance Breton fishers 

n

inflation continues

“Many have sailed towards the North, on the coasts of Baccaloas and Labrador” (according to Antonio de Herrera, Historia General, written 1601-1615) 

n

Italian Wars continue

1509 Aboriginal captives taken to Rouen inflation continues Henry VIII, England 

n

Italian Wars continue

n

Date American Contact Zones & Activity European Commerce European Politics European Bodies & Souls
1512 French and Spanish Basques fishing off Newfoundland inflation continues Italian Wars continue
1515 inflation continues Frances I, France 

n

Italian Wars continue

1516 inflation continues Charles of Spain becomes Holy Roman Emperor Charles V [king of Aragon; co-regent of Castile; king of proto-Spain] 

n

Italian Wars continue

1517 possible instance of Beothuk ‘silent barter’ 

n

Basque fisheries at Placentia, Gaspé, & Grand Baye

inflation continues Italian Wars continue Martin Luther begins protest
1518 Smallpox hits Meso America inflation continues Italian Wars continue
1521 Cape Breton Mi’kmaq encounter Bretons 

n

Depopulated Aztec Empire falls to Cortés

French send 50 to 90 ships per year to Newfoundland fishery 

n

inflation continues

John III, Portugal 

n

Italian Wars continue

Plague in Italy
1524 Aboriginal people of coastal Maine unfriendly to Giovanni Verrazano — rejecting ‘trinkets’, but accepting tools 

n

Inca smallpox epidemic

inflation continues Italian Wars continue Plague in Italy

n

Date American Contact Zones & Activity European Commerce European Politics European Bodies & Souls
1527 depopulated Inca Empire falls to Pizarro inflation continues Italian Wars continue Plague in Italy
1529 ‘Montignais’ (Innu) contact reported by French inflation continues Italian Wars continue Plague in Italy
1530 Probable Aboriginal – European contact in Strait of Belle Isle 

n

Basque fishery increasing

Basque sending up to 20 vessels to Nfld. fishery 

n

inflation continues

Italian Wars continue Augsburg Lutheran & Catholic warfare
1532 Metal & implements from shore stations possibly enter Aboriginal trade (eg. Ramah chert). 

n

West coast Aboriginal people of Newfoundland described as ‘more humane, friendlier’ than other groups. [in Discourse d’un gran Capitano di mare …]

English – Hansiatic League conflict escaltes: England begins withdrawal from Icelandic fishery 

n

inflation continues

Italian Wars continue
1533 Normans exporting cod to England 

n

inflation continues

Italian Wars continue Henry VIII breaks with Vatican
1535 

1536

Aboriginal people of Strait of Belle Isle described by Cartier (Innu &/or Beothuk), also Aboriginal people of St. Lawrence (Mi’kmaq & Iroquoian). European crew overwinters, 50 Aboriginal deaths. inflation continues Italian Wars continue 

n

Donnacona, Domagaia, and ‘gift girls’ in Europe

Plague in England, Low Countries, Germany 

n

Jesuits have formed

n

Date American Contact Zones & Activity European Commerce European Politics European Bodies & Souls
1540 Epidemic raging in Mississippi Valley 

n

French Newfoundland fishery surges; although Basques limited in number, whaling increases

Norman fleet of 60 ships to Nfld. fishery 

n

inflation continues

Italian Wars continue
1541 St. Lawrence Iroquoian people hostile to Cartier French fishery sending 50 to 90 ships per year to Nfld fishery 

n

inflation continues

Italian Wars continue
1542 Grand Baye contact (possibly Iroquoian people) with Basques who report small fur trade axes, knives, & ‘trifles’ exported to North America 

n

inflation continues

Italian Wars continue Plague in England, Low Countries, Germany
1544 inflation continues Italian Wars continue new lethal smallpox variant appears in Iberia
1545 French, Spanish, & Portuguese fisheries expanding rapidly inflation continues Italian Wars continue
1547 inflation continues Edward VI, England. 

n

Henry II, France.

n

Italian Wars continue

n

Date American Contact Zones & Activity European Commerce European Politics European Bodies & Souls
1549 Possibly extended Aboriginal contact with Basque whalers (30 ships per year, 3,500 fishers, some over-winter). Bordeaux sends 27 ships to Nfld fishery (provisioning Basques) 

n

inflation continues

Italian Wars continue
1550 demographic collapse in Mississippi Valley 

n

Fur trade modest through decade; possibly some change in Aboriginal seasonal movement or activity

La Rochelle is premier Newfoundland fish port 

n

inflation continues

Italian Wars continue
1553 Hanseatic League is falling apart 

n

inflation continues

Jane Grey has 9-day rule; Mary I, England 

n

Italian Wars continue

1554 inflation continues Phillip II, of Chile, Naples, consort of England 

n

Italian Wars continue

1555 inflation continues Charles V, Holy Roman Emporer, sets policy of Cuius regio, eins religio 

n

Italian Wars continue

policy of Cuius regio, eins religio: “he who rules, his religion is followed” (Augsberg)
1556 inflation continues Phillip II, Spain 

n

Italian Wars continue

n

Date American Contact Zones & Activity European Commerce European Politics European Bodies & Souls
1557 inflation continues Sebastien I, Portugal 

n

Italian Wars continue

1558 St. Lawrence whale spills boatful of furs fur trade appears in the commercial record (the whale incident entered in a ledger) 

n

inflation continues

Elizabeth I, England: loss of Calais to France. 

n

Italian Wars continue

1559 inflation continues Francis II, France 

n

Italian Wars end

1560 Norman Fishers at Cape Breton Bordeax sends 61 vessels to Nfld fishery 

n

inflation continues

Charles IX, France Age of Religious wars takes shape
1562 30,000 Brazilian people dying of smallpox 

n

Basque fishers begin ‘heyday’ at Labrador’s Strait of Belle Isle, Avalon & Burin Peninsulas of Newfoundland

inflation continues Plague in England, Low Countries, Germany 

n

Religious Wars brewing

1565 Aboriginal people of Canso [Nfld] become ‘less tractable’ in dealing with Europeans 

n

English fishery steady; Basques at Cape Breton; French, Spanish, and Portuguese fishery levels peak

inflation continues 

n

English export cod to France

Calvinist Revolt in Spanish Netherlands [1566 to 1609]

n

Date American Contact Zones & Activity European Commerce European Politics European Bodies & Souls
1570 Whales decline off Labrador coast; cod decline inshore; fishers go offshore, make ‘green’ cod; fisher conflicts increase inflation continues 

n

France exports cod to Spain & Italy

n

English expand trade to Iberia & Mediterranean

Smallpox rages in Mediterranean areas 

n

[1572] 30+ year Religious Civil War begins in France

1574 inflation continues Henry III, France new sumptuary laws, England 

n

Religious Wars continue

1576 inflation continues Plague in Italy 

n

Religious Wars continue

1578 8000-10,000 European fishers in region: 

from France 150 ships; Spain 100 ships; Portugal 50 ships; England 30-50 ships; 20-30 Basque whaling ships

350-380 European ships in Newfoundland fishery 

n

inflation continues

Cardinal Henry, king of Portugal Religious Wars continue
1579 70 – 80 French Basque ships at Cape Breton Spanish Basque fleet is less than 20 ships 

n

inflation continues

Plague in England 

n

Religious Wars continue

1580 500 French  ships at Cape Breton & Maine. Basques trade for furs beaver felt needed for upper class hats 

n

inflation continues

Philip I, Portugal (II of Spain) Religious Wars continue

n

Date American Contact Zones & Activity European Commerce European Politics European Bodies & Souls
1583 Mi’kmaq of south coast of Nova Scotia clash with Rouen merchant, Etienne Belanger, though others remain friendly 

n

Sir Humphrey Gilbert claims Newfoundland for England

inflation continues Religious Wars continue
1584 Conflict with Aboriginal people reported by Europeans, though there are also reports of Aboriginal cooperation in whale processing inflation continues Religious Wars continue
1585 role of Aboriginal ‘trade chief’ has probably emerged in bands, also some material culture change, dietary & beverage change 

n

Basque fur trade peaks; fishers move to North Shore of St. Lawrence

inflation continues 

n

Basque vessels & fishers pressed for service in Spain’s navy

Anglo-Spanish War: 

England sends Drake to attack Spanish & Portuguese fishing fleets;

Spain plans to invade England

Religious Wars continue
1588 2nd smallpox outbreak in former Inca Empire 

n

Basque fishery & fur trade decrease;

n

Portuguese fishery decline;

n

Spanish fishery ends

inflation continues 

n

Iberian peninsula turns to imported fish

Defeat of Spanish Armada Religious Wars continue

n

Date American Contact Zones & Activity European Commerce European Politics European Bodies & Souls
1589 Collapse of St. Lawrence fur trade inflation continues Henry IV, France Religious Wars continue 

n

Plague in England, Low Countries, Germany

1590 

n

1597

Inca society gone 

n

Mi’kmaq sailors possibly acting as ‘middlemen’ in Aboriginal trade networks

inflation continues Religious Wars continue
1598 inflation continues Philip II, Portugal (III of Spain) Edict of Nantes, France 

n

Religious Wars continue

1600

St. Lawrence Iroquoian people ‘gone’; Innu – Iroquois conflict in region; trade disrupted 

n

Patuxet people ‘gone’

Beothuk withdraw from contact

European ‘Furriers’ trapping in Newfoundland

200 English ships fishing from East Avalon toward Bonavista [Nfld]

inflation continues: since 1500, prices have risen fourfold, real wages have fallen 

n

England exporting cod to Iberian peninsula

Plague in England, Low Countries, Germany 

n

Religious Wars continue to 1715

One Response to 1500s: One Hundred Years of Activity in Europe and Newfoundland fishery/Baccalaos/Terre Neuve/Terra de Corte Real

  1. Pingback: Santander to Ushuaia © | All Things St. Jacques, NL

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