Glossary: Seafaring Terms

[aka Part II, slippery words list, this site]

Barque/Bark: originally:

a general name given to small ships: it is however peculiarly appropriated by seamen to those which carry three masts without a mizen top-sail. Our northern mariners, who are trained in the coal-trade, apply this distinction to a broad-sterned ship, which carries no ornamental figure on the stem or prow.

Later barques used in the grain trade could be very large, four and five-masted, with square sails on all but the mizzen [back] mast which was ‘fore-and-aft rigged’, meaning it carried angular, as opposed to square sails.[27]

Barquentine/Barkentine: a term variously, and inconsistently, applied to late nineteenth-century three or four masted vessels, rigged with square sails on the foremast alone, the others being ‘fore-and-aft rigged’ [carrying angular sails].[28]

Bayside: adjective meaning “on or near the shore of a bay.”[29]

Bend: to fix, fasten, tie.[30]

beset

Lithograph, “HM Ship Dorothea Beset in Ice June 11 1818.” Source: Library and Archives Canada, Acc. No. R9266-2123 Peter Winkworth Collection of Canadiana.

Beset: closely surrounded by ice.[31]

Berth/Birth: “A sleeping place. A ship’s station at anchor, or alongside a quay.”[32]

Blink: optical phenomenon that looks like a white to pale yellow bright patch in the sky and indicates snow over land (white, ‘land-blink’ or ‘snow blink’), or a large expanse of sea ice (yellowish, ‘ice-blink’), in its direction.[33]

Blue Peter: signal flag meaning ‘all aboard.’[34]

Boats: “Small Vessels – those belonging to Ships are – the Long Boat, the Launch, the Cutter, the Yawl, and the Jolly Boat.”[35] Usually open, meaning without a deck.

Boatswain: “The Officer who has the charge of the Cordage, Boats, Rigging, &c,” and supervises the work of the deck crew.[36]

Bows: “The round part of the Ship forward.”[37]

Bowsprit: “A Mast projecting over the Stem” [front] of the ship.[38]

Brig/Brigantine: Willaim Falconer’s Universal Dictionary of the Marine of 1780, covers both terms with the following:

a merchant-ship with two masts. This term is not universally confined to vessels of a particular construction, or which are masted and rigged in a method different from all others. It is variously applied, by the mariners of different European nations, to a peculiar sort of vessel of their own marine. … Among English seamen, this vessel is distinguished by having her main-sail set nearly in the plane of her keel; whereas the main-sails of larger ships are hung athwart, or at right angles with the ship’s length, and fastened to a yard which hangs parallel to the deck: but in a brig, the foremost edge of the main-sail is fastened in different places to hoops which encircle the main-mast, and slide up and down it as the sail is hoisted or lowered: it is extended by a gaff above, and by a boom below.

Later, brig and brigantine took on distinct meanings. The Oxford English Dictionary, supplies citations from 1720 to 1854 to define brig as a vessel:

(a.) originally identical with the brigantine (of which word brig was a colloquial abbreviation); but, while the full name has remained with the unchanged brigantine, the shortened name has accompanied the modifications which have subsequently been made in rig, so that a brig is now (b.) A vessel with two masts square-rigged like a ship’s fore- and main-masts, but carrying also on her main-mast a lower fore-and-aft sail with a gaff and boom. A brig differs from a snow in having no try-sail mast, and in lowering her gaff to furl the sail. Merchant snows are often called ‘brigs’. This vessel was probably developed from the brigantine by the men-of-war brigs, so as to obtain greater sail-power.

In American usage, a brigantine was referred to as a “hermaphrodite brig.”[39]

Bulk-heads: “Partitions in the Ship.”[40]

Bulwark: “The raised woodwork running along the sides of a vessel above the level of the deck.”[41]

Cape Fly-away: an illusion “on the horizon, mistaken for land, which disappears as the ship approaches.”[42]

Careen: “To heave a vessel down upon her side by purchases upon the masts. To lie over, when sailing on the wind.”[43]

Cat: the arrangement of rope or chain and block or pulley – if more than one pulley, the ‘tackle’ — by which a ship’s anchor was raised to the cathead [a projecting piece of timber at the bow of a ship] in preparation for either stowing or letting go; also abbreviation of cat-o’-nine tails.[44]

Cat-o’-nine tails: instrument for flogging seamen made of nine lengths of braided cord with three knots in each, ending in a larger rope that served as handle.[45]

Clear water: portion of sea without ice.[46]

Conn/Con/Cond/Cun: “derived from the Anglo-Saxon conne, connan, to know, or be skilful. The pilot of old was skilful, and later the master was selected to conn the ship in action.” To “cun” a ship is “To direct the Helm’s-man how to steer” – hence ‘conning’ a ship through ice from atop a mast.[47]

Dead Reckoning: “Determining the position of a vessel by adding to the last fix the ship’s course and speed for a given time”[48]

Deadweight: “A ship may be designed to carry a specified weight of cargo, plus such necessary supplies as fuel, lubricating oil, crew, and the crew’s life support). These combine to form a total known as deadweight.”[49]

Departure:

the last position on a chart, when a ship is leaving land, fixed from observations of shore stations. Thus a ship, when starting on a voyage takes her departure not from the port from which she sails but from the position where the last bearings of points ashore intersect on the chart.

The point at which reckoning of a voyage begins. It is usually established by bearings of prominent landmarks as the vessel clears a harbor and proceeds to sea. When a navigator establishes this point, he is said to take departure.”[50]

Dhobie/dobie/dhobi: “laundry,” (Royal Canadian Navy), “To wash clothing or linen. Origin from Indian sub-continent where a Dhobi is a washerman.” ‘Dhobie day’ was often a Sunday, customarily the sailor’s rest day, when clothes could be washed and mended.[51]

Dogger:

two-masted fishing vessel … somewhat resembling a ketch, used in the North Sea deep sea fisheries: formerly applied to English craft as well as those of other nations, but now practically restricted to Dutch fishing vessels (though out of use in Holland itself). In the 17th and 18th c. they frequently acted as privateers.[52]

Drift-rail: general name for the outer rail on the upper decks of a ship, though various sections of rail had specific names.[53]

Engineer: in steamships of the early 1800s, an engine keeper, with “no marine specific qualifications or formal training … usually employed on the recommendation of boiler makers and engine works ashore.” By 1862, engineers were certified and training included time at sea.[54]

Fenders: “Pieces of rope or wood, or a quantity of cork, covered with canvas or worked over with rope, hung over a ship to protect her sides … A boat’s fenders are usually made of leather, and stuffed with oakum.”[55]

Fireman: crew tasked with shoveling coal into the boiler of a steam engine.[56]

Fo’c’sle/Forecastle/Fore Castle: “A short Deck in the fore part of the Ship”; “In a merchant ship it signifies the place forward, where the crew live.”[57]

Frame: “A built-up rib of a wooden vessel.”[58]

Frigate: “a vessel of larger size.”[59]

Full-rigged ship: a vessels with three or more masts each carrying at least three, and sometimes four courses of square sails.[60]

Grapple: “to hook or hold fast to.”[61]

High Seas:

those parts of the sea not under the sovereignty of adjacent states. Claims have at times been made to exclusive dominion over large areas of the sea as well as over wide margins … The action and reaction of the interests of navigation, however, have brought states to adopt a limitation first enunciated by Bynkershoek in the formula ‘terrae dominium finitur ubi finitur armorum vis.’ Thenceforward cannon-shot range became the determining factor in the fixation of the margin of sea afterwards known as ‘territoral waters’(q.v.). With the exception of these territorial waters, bays of certain dimensions and inland waters surrounded by territory of the same state, and serving only as a means of access to ports of the state by whose territory they are surrounded, and some waters allowed by immemorial usage to rank as territorial, all seas and oceans form part of the high sea. The usage of the high sea is free to all the nations of the world, subject only to such restrictions as result from respect for the equal rights of others, and to those which nations may contract with each other to observe.[62]

Hold:“the very lower Apartment or Division in the Bottom of the Ship … where all Goods, Stores, &c. lie.”[63]

Hoy: “A small vessel, usually rigged as a sloop, and employed in carrying passengers and goods, particularly in short distances on the sea-coast.”[64]

Ice: terms relating to encountering ice while under sail include:

Bay-ice: new formed ice on the sea surface.

Bay-floe: newly formed floe of ice.

Bight: also ‘bay’: an indentation in an ice floe.

Black sheet: thin, snow-free ice that is dark in appearance, easily confused with open water at night, commonly found between older ice pans.

Bore: to enter ice under sail [or steam] and force a ship through, separating the ice in the process.

Butting: also ‘ramming’, or ‘backing’: running a ship at ice to bore through.

Calf: an underwater ice tongue which breaks loose and rises to the surface “with violence.”

Calving: edge of ice berg or sheet breaking off to form a ‘calf.’

Closed-ice: densely concentrated pack ice composed of floes mostly in contact.

Collar ice: rigid ice firmly frozen to a shore.

Decker: ‘rafter’ at a pressure ridge (Newfoundland).

Dock: either a small naturally occurring bight, or a square space cut in a floe sufficient to shelter a ship “from the danger of external pressure.”

Field: very thick and extremely large sheet of ice — seeming to extend almost to the horizon.

Floe: a field whose limits are clearly visible.

Growler: also ‘large ice’: piece of ice broken from an iceberg or old floe ice, washed and rounded to differing degrees.

Hole: also ‘pool of water’, or ‘swatch’: small space of ‘clear water’ in an otherwise ice-covered sea.

Hummocky ice: ice piled unevenly to form a continuous body of thick ice.

Land-ice: also ‘land-floe’: either floes frozen to land, or heavy masses of ice grounded near the shore.

Lead: channel through ice. To ‘take the right lead’ is to follow a channel to more navigable sea. A ‘blind lead’ terminates against solid ice.

Lolly: new, loose ice.

Nip: to be pressed by ice.

Nipping: ice that begins to close due to wind or currents, preventing passage.

Open-ice: “Pack ice in which the concentration is 4/10 to 6/10, with many leads … and the floes generally not in contact with one another.”

Pack-ice: also ‘ice pack’: a large expanse of solid ice made up of separate masses of ice lying close together and impossible to pass.

Packed ice: small pieces held close together by larger ice, or currents.

Pan: an ice mass small enough to be moved by a ship.

Pancake-ice: new ice, formed of numberless rounded patches of ‘sludge,’ so that the sea surface appears paved.

Patch: a smaller variety of pack-ice, around which open water is visible.

Porridge ice: small, finely ground ice.

Pressure ridge: ridge of ice thrown up by rafting ice.

Rafting: the edges of two pans meeting with force break off and rise on top (as ‘rafters’), or drop under the pans.

Running abroad: ice which opens out or ‘slacks away’ and becomes navigable.

Sailing-ice: masses of ice separate enough that a ship can sail among them.

Sally: an operation in which the sailors run from side to side onboard a ship, causing a ship to roll and thereby free it from young ice.

Sish/Slish: new, young ice in thin sheets.

Slack ice: masses of ice separate enough that a ship can be worked through.

Slacking: ice that is beginning to open and become navigable.

Slatches: large pools of open water in ice.

Slew: to force a ship against a piece of ice well off centre, causing it to swing aside.

Slob: floating snow, freezing into ice.

Sludge: ice of a honey-like consistency that does little to impede a ship, but thattends to solidify into a ‘bay-floe.’

Stream: long, narrow and generally continuous collection of loose ice.

Tongue: underwater ice projecting from an iceberg or floe, differing from a ‘calf’in remaining fixed to the larger body.

Track: to follow along the edge of an ice pack.

Waking: directly following the path of another ship through ice.

Wash: also ‘rote’ (Newfoundland): sound of the sea breaking on ice.

Young-ice: similar to ‘bay-ice,’ but more recently formed.[65]

Jacob’s Ladder: “A ladder made of rope, with wooden bars for steps.”[66]

Jonah: named for Jonah of the Old Testament, a bringer of bad luck to a ship.[67]

Ketch: a vessel with two masts, ‘fore and aft rigged’ – meaning it carried angled, rather than square, sails.[68]

Land Sky: also ‘land blink’: dark streaks or patches of greyness in the sky above the horizon, not as dark as ‘water sky,’ but might be confused with a ‘blink’ caused by ‘black ice.’[69]

Landward: on, or towards land.[70]

Leeward: “with the Wind, or on that Point towards which the Wind blows” – hence lee-shore.[71]

Lighter: “A large flat bottomed boat, used for conveying stores from the dockyard to the ships.”[72]

Mizen/Mizzen:

has several Words peculiar to it. The Mizen-mast is that which is abaft,or nearest to the Stern [back] of the Ship; and from thence, every thing belonging to that Mast is distinguished accordingly, as are all the other Masts, and their Rigging, &c. So therefore the Mizen-sail is called the Mizen.[73]

Oakum: fibrous material “for caulking the seams of a deck, &c.”[74]

Offing: “to the Sea-ward from the Land; as, when a Ship, or a Fleet, is said to lie in the Offing, it means, that they from whom that Expression has come, were in a Ship which lay in Harbour, or were near the Shore, when the others were to the Seaward of them.”[75]

Orlop deck: lowest deck in a ship.[76]

Pink: a “square-rigged ship with a narrow and overhanging stern.”[77]

Pinnace: a small two-masted sailing vessel with square sails; also large “fast oared boats.”[78]

Plain/Plane Sailing: “straightforward and easy. The origin of the term arose from the plane charts of the 16th century which were drawn on the assumption that the earth was flat, even though by then all navigators knew it was not.”[79]

Points/Reef-points: “short lengths of small rope” secured to a sail and used to ‘reef’ or gather up the sail to reduce the amount exposed to wind.[80]

Poop deck: short deck at the stern of a ship, the roof of the captain’s cabin.[81]

Quarantine: “All communications cut off from any ship, boat, or shore that has any sickness on board, as fever.”[82]

Quarter deck: section of upper deck between the mainmast [middle] and mizen mast [back], just in front of the captains cabin and the poop deck.[83]

Reach: “the Distance between any two Points of Land, that lie in a right-line from each other.”[84]

Rigging:”all the ropes, wires, or chains used in ships and smaller vessels to support themasts, raise, and position sails.[85]

Road: “any Place near the Land, where Ships may ride at Anchor; from whence a Ship so riding, is call’d a Roader” [italics in source].[86]

Schooner: a vessel with at least two masts, usually not rigged with square sails.[87]

Scuttle:To scuttle a ship is “To make holes in her bottom to sink her.”[88]

Seamen:

AB – ‘Able-bodied ~’ were “able to perform all the duties of a seaman.”

OS/OD – ‘Ordinary ~’ were subordinate to an AB.[89]

Seaward: towards the sea.[90]

Shallop: a sloop, or large boat with one or more masts carrying fore-and-aft (angular) sails.[91]

Sloop: single mast vessel carrying angular sails.[92]

‘Son of a Gun’: mildly pejorative phrase for a male child conceived, or born, aboard ship in the relative seclusion of the space between cannons on a ship’s gun deck.[93]

Sound: “to try with a Line, or other Thing, how deep the Water is.”[94]

‘Swallow the Anchor’: to leave seafaring and live ashore.[95]

Tack: to tack is:

the operation of bringing a sailing vessel head to the wind and across itso as to bring the wind on the opposite side of the vessel. During this manouevre the vessel is said to be in stays or staying, or coming about. When a sailing vessel wishes to make up to windward, she can only do so by tacking, crossing the wind continuously to make a series of legs, of which the net distance gained is to windward.[96]

Tilt Boat: a passenger vessel with a large canvas cover to protected passengers and cargo from the elements. It also featured two small masts “rigged with spritsails, a sailing rig that is still used by Thames sailing barges today.”[97]

Tramp steamer: a merchant vessel without a regular route and subject to diverting as needed.[98]

Wales: also called bends, “strongest Planks in the Ship’s sides, on the broadest Part.”[99]

Warp: “to carry [a vessel] against the Wind, by means of carrying out an Anchor in the Boat, and dropping it; then to hawl upon it and so carry out another Anchor, after the Ship is come up to the first Anchor. [100]

Watch: “A division of the Ship’s company who keep the Deck for a certain time. One is called the starboard, and the other the larboard Watch” [italics in source], “on deck and below alternately.”

Middle watch: “The watch between midnight and 4 a.m.”

Morning watch: 4 am. to 8 am.

Forenoon watch: 8 am. to noon

Afternoon watch: noon to 4 pm.

Dog watch: “Two half watches of two hours each, from 4 to 6, and from 6 to 8, in the evening.”

First watch: “The portion of the crew on deck duty from 8 p.m. to midnight.”[101]

Water-sky: optical phenomenon that looks like a dark, or bluish patch in the sky and indicates ‘clear water’ in its direction.[102]

Wear: to wear is:

the operation of bringing a sailing ship onto the other tack by bringing the wind around the stern as opposed to tacking when the wind is brought round the bow. It has been suggested that the word originated from veer, which has a similar meaning, but the term to wear a ship is the earlier of the two. In the past tense, a ship is wore, not worn.[103]

Wind:

Fair ~ “A wind which aids a craft in making progress in a desired direction.”

Foul ~ “The wind heading a ship, so as to prevent her laying her course.”[104]

York boat: a large boat, about thirty-six feet long, eight feet wide, and three or four feet deep. Both ends were pointed and ‘raked’ – “They leaned out, that is, forward and backward four feet from the end of the keel. This made it easier to push them off rocks and shoals.” York boat crews were made up of six middlemen at the oars, a bowman, and steersman. “The oars, or sweeps, were very large, and to balance them the oarsman was placed on the opposite side of the boat to that on which the oar lock was. He stood up to push the oar forward and sat down as he pulled his stroke.” The boats had a removable mast that carried a single square sail.[105] According to HBC lore, Chief Factor William Sinclair, oldest brother of Captain Colin Sinclair, standardized their design.

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[27] William Falconer, “William Falconer’s Dictionary of the Marine” http://southseas.nla.gov.au/refs/falc/0113.html (accessed 6 November 2007). Peter Kemp, ed., The Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea (New York:Oxford University Press, 1976), 61–62. See also Jenny Bennett and Veres Laszlo, Sailing Rigs: An Illustrated Guide (Annapolis MA.: Naval Institute Press, 2005), 7.

[28] See Bennett and Laszlo, Sailing Rigs, 7, 33–37.

[29] “bayside,” Oxford English Dictionary online [OED].

[30] Darcy Lever, The Young Sea Officers Sheet Anchor; or, a key to the leading of rigging, and to practical seamanship [1808], transcribed by Lars Bruzelius, A Maritime Dictionary: Or, An Explanation of the most usual Sea-Terms, digested into Alphabetical Order http://www.bruzelius.info/Nautica/Etymology/English/Lever(1808).html (accessed 8 February 2009); William Mountaine, The Seaman’s Vade-Mecum, and Defensive War by Sea: Containing the Proportions of Rigging, Masts and Yards Weight of Anchors, Sizes and Weight of Cables and Cordage, List of the Navy. The Exercise of the Small Arms, Bayonet, Granadoes and Great-Guns, Duty of Officers, &c. also Shewing how to prepare a Merchant-Ship for a close Fight. Chasing; … Defensive-Fighting; … Naval Fortification; … An Essay on Naval Book-keeping [1756], transcribed by Lars Bruzelius, A Maritime Dictionary: Or, An Explanation of the most usual Sea-Terms, digested into Alphabetical Order http://www.bruzelius.info/Nautica/Etymology/Englis/Mountaine(1756)_pi.html (accessed 8 February 2009). Also Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 78.

[31] William Edward Parry, Journal of a Second Voyage for the Discovery of a North-West Passage From the Atlantic to the Pacific, Performed in the Years 18212223, In His Majesty’s Ships Fury and Hecla … (New York: E. Duyckinck, G. Long, Collins & Co., Collins & Hannay, W.B. Gilley, and Henry I. Megarey, 1824), xiv; Nathaniel Bowditch, The American Practical Navigator: An Epitome of Navigation, [1821] 1995 ed. online (Bethesda MA.: National Imagery and mapping Agency, 1995) http://www.irbs.com/bowditch/ (accessed 10 March 2008).

[32] Charles Burney, “Vocabulary of Sea Terms,” The Young Seaman’s Manual and Rigger’s Guide, 1876/1901, transcribed by Lars Bruzelius http://www.bruzelius.info/Nautica/Etymology/English/Burney (1901)_dict.htm (accessed 8 February 2009); Lever: The Young Sea Officers Sheet Anchor; Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 80.

[33] Parry, Journal of a Second Voyage; William Wakeham, Report of the Expedition to Hudson Bay and Cumberland Gulf in the Steamship ‘Diana’ under the Command of William Wakeham, Marine and Fisheries Canada in the year 1897 (Ottawa: S.E. Dawson, Printer to the Queen’s Most Excellent Majesty, 1898), 5–6; Bowditch, American Practical Navigator.

[34] Jim Croft, “Meanings of International Maritime Signal Flags,” Australian National Botanic Gardens http://www.anbg.gov.au/flags/signal-meaning.html (accessed  12 February 2009).

[35] Lever: The Young Sea Officers Sheet Anchor; Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 92.

[36] Ibid.

[37] Ibid.

[38] Ibid. Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 102–3, uses the term ‘spar’ rather than ‘mast.’

[39] “brig,” OED, “1.a.” See also Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 109.

[40] Lever, The Young Sea Officers Sheet Anchor. Also Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 117.

[41] “bulwark,” OED, “3.”

[42] William Falconer, An Universal Dictionary of the Marine: Or, A Copious Explanation of the Technical Terms and Phrases Employed in the Construction, Equipment, Furniture, Machinery, Movements, and Military Operations of a Ship, new ed., corrected (London: T. Cadell, 1780), online, South Seas, Web Academic Resource, 2004 http://southseas.nla.gov.au/refs/falc/title.html (accessed 7 January 2008); W.H. Smyth, The Sailor’s Word Book: An Alphabetical Digest of Nautical Terms, Including Some More Especially Military and Scientific, But Useful to Seamen; As Well As Archaisms of Early Voyagers, etc. revised, ed. E. Belcher (Glasgow and Edinburgh: Blackie and Son, 1867), 159, 310.

[43] R.H. Dana, The Seaman’s Friend: Containing a Treatise on Practical Seamanship, with Plates; A Dictionary of Sea Terms; Customs and Usages of the Merchant Service; Laws Relating to the Practical Duties of Master and Mariners, 6th ed. (Boston: Thomas Groom & Co., 1851) online http://www. hmssurprise.org/Resources/DanaSFLex.html (accessed 23 September 2008); also Burney, “Vocabulary of Sea Terms.” Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 139.

[44] Dana, The Seaman’s Friend; Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 144–45. See also Alan H. Hartley, “Sandahl, Middle English Sea Terms, vol. 1–2,” Maritime History Citations for the OED http://www.d.umn.edu/~ahartley/Sandahl _v.1-2.html (accessed  8 February, 2009); and Burney, “Vocabulary of Sea Terms.” Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 144–145.

[45] Robert McKenna, The Dictionary of Nautical Literacy (Camden ME.: International Marine, 2001), 61; Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 147; Burney, “Vocabulary of Sea Terms.” Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 147.

[46] Parry, Journal of a Second Voyage.

[47] Smyth, Sailor’s Word Book, 209; Lever: The Young Sea Officers Sheet Anchor. Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 193.

[48] Bowditch, American Practical Navigator; also Burney, “Vocabulary of Sea Terms.” Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 234.

[49] “deadweight,” Encyclopedia Britannica, online http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/ topic/54313/deadweight (accessed 12 September 2007). Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 235.

[50] Bowditch, American Practical Navigator. Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 240.

[51] A.R. Williamson, “Voyage of the ‘Discovery’ 1911,” part II, The Beaver 63, no. 1 (summer 1983): 22; Peter H. Spectre, The Mariner’s Book of Days 2008 (Sheridan House, 2007), 74; Fraser, “Nautical terms and Slang,” Blue Star on the Web http://www.bluestarline.org/nautical_terms_1.htm (accessed 12 September 2008).

[52] “dogger,” OED, “1.”

[53] See Peter Goodwin, The Construction and Fitting of the English Man of War, 1650–1850 (Naval Institute Press, 1987), 57; and Franke, Technological Dictionary Containing the Technical Terms used in Manufactures and Arts, Building, Civil and Naval Architecture, Military, Civil and Mechanical Engineering, Artillery, Navigation, Mathematics and Natural Philosophy, Chemistry and Mineralogy etc. vol. II (New York: Westerman and Company, 1885), 167–168.

[54] K. Hamblin, “Challenging the Old Order: Exploring the rise of the engineer in commercial shipping in Britain, Germany and France since 1830,” unpublished paper, Economic History Society, Exeter University, ca. 2007 www.ehs.org.uk/ehs/conference2007/Assets/HamblinNRID.doc (accessed 13 February 2009), 6; see also Frank T. Bullen, The Men of the Merchant Service : Being the Polity of the Mercantile Marine for ‘Longshore Readers (London: Smith, Elder and Co., 1900), 305–316.

[55] Burney, “Vocabulary of Sea Terms.”

[56] Bullen, The Men of the Merchant Service, 317–327.

[57] Lever: The Young Sea Officers Sheet Anchor;Burney, “Vocabulary of Sea Terms.” Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 320.

[58] Richard M. Van Gaasbeek, Wooden Boat and Ship Building: The Fundamental Principles and Practical Methods Described in Detail (Chicago: Frederick J. Drake & Company, 1941), 213.

[59] “frigate,” OED, 2.

[60] See Bennett and Laszlo, Sailing Rig, 7–12.

[61] Burney, “Vocabulary of Sea Terms.”

[62] “High Seas,” Classic Encyclopedia. Based on Encyclopedia Britannica 1911 http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/High_Seas (accessed 8 February 2009). Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 388.

[63] Mountaine, The Seaman’s Vade-Mecum. Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 391.

[64] “hoy,” OED.

[65] Bowditch, American Practical Navigator. William Coats, The Geography of Hudson’s Bay: being the remarks of Captain W. Coats, in many voyages to that locality, between the years 1727 and 1751, ed. John Barrow (London: Hakluyt Society, 1852), 21; Parry, Journal of a Second Voyage, xiv. Schwatka. William Wakeham, Report of the Expedition to Hudson Bay, 5–6.

[66] Burney, “Vocabulary of Sea Terms.” Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 424.

[67] Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 434.

[68] Ibid., 447.

[69] Coats,  Geography, 21; Thomas M’Keevor,  A voyage to Hudson’s Bay, during the summer of 1812 : containing a particular account of the icebergs and other phenomena which present themselves in those region : also, a description of the Esquimeaux and North American Indians, their manners, customs, dress, language, &c. &c. &c. (London : Printed for Sir Richard Phillips and Co., 1819), 5n; Bowditch, American Practical Navigator.

[70] “landward,” OED, “1.b.,” and “2.”

[71] Mountaine, Seaman’s Vade-Mecum. Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 473.

[72] Burney, “Vocabulary of Sea Terms.”

[73] Mountaine, Seaman’s Vade-Mecum. See also Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 552.

[74] Ibid.Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 610.

[75] Mountaine, Seaman’s Vade-Mecum; Burney, “Vocabulary of Sea Terms.” See also Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 614.

[76] Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 618.

[77] Ibid., 648.

[78] Arthur Herman, To Rule the Waves: How the British Navy Shaped the Modern World (New York: Harper Perennial, 2005), 8; Burney, “Vocabulary of Sea Terms”; Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 649.

[79] Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 652.

[80] Ibid., 696.

[81] Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 659.

[82] Burney, “Vocabulary of Sea Terms.” Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 677.

[83] Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 679.

[84] Mountaine, Seaman’s Vade-Mecum. See alsoKemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 695.

[85] Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 707.

[86] Ibid.

[87] Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 759.

[88] Lever: The Young Sea Officers Sheet Anchor. See also Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 763–64.

[89] Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 1, 617; McKenna, Dictionary of Nautical Literacy, 272.

[90] J.W. Carlin, ed., “Seaward,” A Naval Encyclopædia: Comprising a Dictionary of Nautical Words and Phrases; Biographical Notices, and Records of Naval Officers; Special Articles of Naval Art and Science (Philadelphia: L. R. Hamersly & Co., 1880), 728.

[91] “shallop,” OED, 1; see also Daniel Vickers and Vince Walsh, Young Men and the Sea: Yankee Seafarers in the Age of Sail (New Haven CT: Yale University Press, 2007), 15.

[92] Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 809.

[93] Evan Morris, “Word Detective” http://www.word-detective.com/092403. html (accessed 6 May 2008); Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 816.

[94] Mountaine, Seaman’s Vade-Mecum. Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 816.

[95] W. Nelson Francis, review of Hakluyt’s Voyages: An Epic of Discovery, by Richard Hakluyt, The William and Mary Quarterly 12, no. 3, 3d series (July 1955): 448.

[96] Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 853.

[97] “Gravesend tilt boat (SLR0360),” Ship Models, National Maritime Museum http://www.nmm.ac.uk/collections/explore/object.cfm?ID=SLR0360 (accessed 18 February 2009).

[98] Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 885.

[99] Lever: The Young Sea Officers Sheet Anchor. Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 923.

[100] Mountaine, Seaman’s Vade-Mecum. Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 924–925.

[101] Lever: The Young Sea Officers Sheet Anchor; Burney, “Vocabulary of Sea Terms.” Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 926.

[102] Parry, Journal of a Second Voyage, xiv; Wakeham, , 5–6; Bowditch, American Practical Navigator.

[103] Kemp, Oxford Companion to Ships, 929.

[104] Bowditch, American Practical Navigator; Burney, “Vocabulary of Sea Terms.”

[105] W.L. Morton, “The York Boat,” Manitoba Pageant (January 1957), Manitoba Historical Society http://www.mhs.mb.ca/docs/pageant/02/yorkboat.shtml (accessed 11 February 2009).  “The York Boat,” The Beaver 11, no. 2 (September 1931): 281–82.

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