bibliography 4: Icy Seas History

Northern Canadian Maritime History

Primary Sources

I. Archival

A. Archives of Manitoba

MG1 D15. “Will of William Sinclair (Fl. 1794–1818).”

MG 14 B30, file 38. “Colin Robertson Sinclair Estate, 1898–1903.” Grant of Probate “In the Surrogate Court of the Eastern Judicial District of Manitoba re Colin Sinclair, Deceased,” 31 July 1901.

B. Hudson’s Bay Company Archives

A.1/33. Governor and Committee (London Office). Fair Copies of Governor and Committee Minutes, 1711–1718.

A.1/54. Governor and Committee (London Office). Fair Copies of Governor and Committee Minutes, 1823–1825.

A.5/8. Governor and Committee (London Office). General Outward Correspondence, 1824–1828.

A.6/3 [1-87]. Official General Outward Correspondence, 1696–1715.

A.6/5-6 Official General Outward Correspondence, 1727–1741.

A.11/117. London Inward Correspondence from York Factory, 1787–1797.

A.11/118. London Inward Correspondence from York Factory, 1807–1870.

A.16/33. Governor and Committee (London Office), Officers’ and Servants’ Ledgers, 1790–1797.

A.32/17. Governor and Committee (London Office), Servants’ Contracts, 1791–1809.

B.3/a/3-8, 11-12, 24. Albany Post Journals, 1711–1717, 1722–1724, 1735–1736.

B.42/a/32-47. Fort Churchill Post Journals, 1748–1756.

B.42/b/57. Churchill Correspondence Book, 1811–1812.

B.59/a/1-9. Eastmain Post Journals, 1736–1744.

B.59/b/24. Eastmain Post Journals, Correspondence Books, 1806.

B.239/a/81. York Factory Post Journal, 1782.

B.239/f/1-6. York Factory List of Servants, 1783–1801.

B.372/a/1. Great Whale River Post Journal, 1814–1815.

C.1/346. Ship’s Logs, Hudson’s Bay, 1751.

C.1/360-361, 383, 386. Ship’s Logs, King George, 1751–1752, 1779, 1782.

C.1/411-420. Ship’s Logs, King George (III), 1802–1808.

C.1/627-631. Ship’s Logs, Pelican, 1906–1913.

C.1/781. Ship’s Logs, Prince of Wales, 1814.

C.1/869. Ship’s Logs, Prince Rupert, 1751.

C.1/1021-28, 1053, 1055. Ship’s Logs, Seahorse, 1751–1758, 1791, 1792.

C.3/20. Portledge Books, 1845–1915.

C.4/1 Book of Ships’ Movements, 1719–1929.

C.4/2. Arrival of Ships in London, 1820–1891.

C.6/1. Freight Books, 1844–1875.

C.7/13, 26, 39, 51, 54, 71, 80, 175. Ships’ Miscellaneous Papers, 1792–1910.

E.12/5-7. “My Notebook.” Isobel G[raham] Finlayson Journal, 1840.

G.2/8. Moses Norton, “Draught of the Northern  Parts of Hudson’s Bay laid Down on Indn Informn & Brot Home by Him, Anno 1760.”

G.5/3. Murdock Mackenzie, “Geographic & Hydrographic Survey of the Orkney & Lewis Islands,” 1750.

Biographical Sheets. Online Index. Accessed 2004–2008.

Online Finding Aid. Section C (Ships’ Records)., Accessed 2004–2008.

Search File, Ships, Enclosure No. 1 to C.C.16127. “List of Ships Sailing for Hudson Bay.”

Search File, Ships, Misc. “38. Geo III (1797/98) (Cap. 76).”

Search File, Ships, Misc., Compensation, 1689. “Petition of Seamen”; “The Committees Answer to the Same Petition”; “Co. to Gov. Marsh. (Albany) 6th June”; “Coppy of the Instrument given to ye Seamen of the Dering & Hudson’s Bay Friggtt.”

Search File, Ships, Misc., Convoy. 1693.

Search File, Ships, Misc., Convoy. 1698.

Ships Records Finding Aid [sic], Section C (in two parts). Compiled 1953.

C. Centre for Newfoundland Studies, Memorial University of Newfoundland

(Jonathan Horsnaill for) Hugh Palliser, Order Enclosed with Report on the Newfoundland Trade and Fisheries, April 8, 1765.” Colonial Office 194 Papers, vol. 16. 179—179 B-179v.

Parsons, Alex A. “Our Great Sealing Industry, and the Men and Methods Employed from Time to Time in Its Prosecution.” Newfoundland Quarterly 14, no. 4 (1915): 6–9.

D. Library and Archives Canada

Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk Fonds. Microfilm A.27. Selkirk Papers, vol. 1. Canadian Library Association Ottawa, 1950.

E. Maritime History Archive

Atlantic Canada Shipping Project. Ships and Seafarers of Atlantic Canada. CD. 1998.

Job Family Fonds, 1818–1964. Holdings and Collections. Finding Aid 21.  Accessed 17 May 2007.

II. Published Documents

Beattie, Judith Hudson, and Helen M. Buss, eds. Undelivered Letters to Hudson’s Bay Company Men on the Northwest Coast of America, 1830–57. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2003.

Bell, Charles N. Our Northern Waters: A report presented to the Winnipeg Board of Trade regarding Hudson’s Bay and Straits: being a statement of their resources in minerals, fisheries, timbers, furs, game and other products: also, notes on the navigation of these waters, with historical events and meteorological and climatic data. Winnipeg: Winnipeg Board of Trade, 1884.

Blaeu, Joan.Atlas Major of 1655. 6 vols. Reproduced with introduction and texts by Peter Van Der Krogt. Los Angeles: Taschen, 2006.

Canada. Senate. Special Committee on Navigability and Fishery Resources of Hudson Bay and Strait. Report. Ottawa: King’s Printer, 1920.

Canada. Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. Report. Volume 1. Looking Forward, Looking Back. Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services Canada, 1996.

The Case of the Hudson’s Bay Company. S.I.: s.n., [1748?].

Chambers, Ernest J., ed. Canada’s Fertile Northland: A Glimpse of the Enormous Resources of Part of the Unexplored Regions of the Dominion. Evidence Heard before a Select Committee of the Senate of Canada during the Parliamentary Session of 1906–7, and the Report Based thereon. Ottawa: Government Printing Bureau, 1907.

Clapham, John. Minutes of the Hudson’s Bay Company, 1671–1674. Vol 5. Hudson’s Bay Company Series. Edited by E.E. Rich. Toronto: Champlain Society, 1942.

Coues, Elliot, ed. New Light on the Early History of the Northwest: The Manuscript Journals of Alexander Henry. 1897. Reprint, Minneapolis: Ross & Haines, 1965.

Davenport, Frances Gardiner, ed. European Treaties Bearing on the History of the United States and its Dependencies. Papers of the Department of Historical Research Series, Vol. 4, no. 254. Washington, DC: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1917–1937. Reprint, New Jersey: Lawbook Exchange, 2004.

Davies, K.G., ed., with A.M. Johnson. Northern Quebec and Labrador Journals and Correspondence, 1819–35. London: Hudson’s Bay Record Society, 1963.

______. Letters from Hudson Bay, 1703–40. London: Hudson’s Bay Record Society, 1965.

Fleming, R. Harvey, ed. Minutes of the Council of the Northern Department of Rupert’s Land 1821-1831. London: Champlain Society, 1940.

Gillam, Zachariah. Transcript. “The Voyage of the Nonsuch, 1668.” The Beaver 23, no. 2 (September 1943): 2.

Gordon, A.R. “Report of the Hudson’s Bay Expedition, under the Command of Lieut. A.R. Gordon, R.N., 1884.” Canadian Government Sessional Papers 18, no. 6. Ottawa, 1885.

Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons. Report from the Committee Appointed to Inquire into the State and Condition of the countries adjoining to Hudson’s Bay, and of the trade carried on there: Together with an appendix: Reported by Lord Strange, 24 April 1749. London: House of Commons, 1749.

______. Select Committee on the Hudson’s Bay Company. Report from the Select Committee on the Hudson’s Bay Company together with the proceedings of the committee, minutes of evidence, appendix and index. London: HMSO, 1858.

______. Public Record Office. Calendar of State Papers: Colonial Series. Vol. 12, America and the West Indies, 1685–1688. London: HMSO, 1860–[1994].

Henry, Alexander. The Journal of Alexander Henry the Younger 1799–1814. Vol. 1. Edited by Barry M. Gough. Toronto: Champlain Society, 1988.

Hudson’s Bay Company. “The Royal Charter for Incorporating the Hudson’s Bay Company. A.D. 1670.” London: Hudson’s Bay Company, 1949. [alternates:;]

Kelsey, Henry. The Kelsey Papers. Edited by John Warkentin. Regina: Canadian Plains Research Center, 1994. [alternate:]

McKenna, J.A.J. The Hudson Bay Route: A Compilation of Facts with Conclusions. Ottawa: Department of the Interior, 1908.

MacLeod, Margaret Arnett, ed. The Letters of Letitia Hargrave. Toronto: Champlain Society, 1947.

Rich, E.E. ed. Letters Outward 1688–96. Toronto: Champlain Society, 1948.

______. Minutes of the Hudson’s Bay Company 1679–1684, First Part, 1679–82. Toronto: Champlain Society, 1945.

______. Minutes of the Hudson’s Bay Company, 1679–1684; Second Part, 1682–84. Toronto: Champlain Society, 1946.

Rich, E.E., ed., with A.M. Johnson. Copy-book of letters outward &c: Begins 29th May, 1680, ends 5 July, 1687.Toronto: Champlain Society, 1948.

______. James Isham’s observations on Hudson’s Bay, 1743: and notes and observations on a book entitled A voyage to Hudson’s Bay in the Dobbs Galley, 1749. Toronto: Champlain Society for the Hudson’s Bay Record Society, 1949.

______. Hudson’s Bay copy book of letters, commissions, instructions outward 1688–1696. London: Hudson’s Bay Record Society, 1957.

Thwaites, Reuben Gold, ed. The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents: Travels and Explorations of the Jesuit Missionaries in New France, 1610–1791.Vol. 18, Hurons and Québec. Cleveland: Burrows Brothers, 1898.

Tyrrell, J. B., ed. Documents Relating to the Early History of Hudson Bay. Toronto: Champlain Society, 1931.

Wakeham, William.Report of the Expedition to Hudson Bay and Cumberland Gulf in the Steamship ‘Diana’ under the Command of William Wakeham, Marine and Fisheries Canada in the year 1897. Ottawa: S.E. Dawson, Printer to the Queen’s Most Excellent Majesty, 1898.

Williams, Glyndwr, ed. Andrew Graham’s Observations on Hudson Bay, 1767–91. London: Hudson’s Bay Record Society, 1969.

______. Hudson’s Bay Miscellany 1670–1870. Winnipeg: Hudson’s Bay Record Society, 1975.

III. Books

Abbot, Willis J. American Merchant Ships and Sailors. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1902.

Ballantyne, R.M. The Floating Light of the Goodwin Sands. 1870. London: James Nisbet & Co., [19–]. Project Gutenberg EBook #21735. Accessed 20 November 2007.

Ballantyne, Robert M. Hudson’s Bay, or, Every-day life in the wilds of North America: During six years’ residence in the territories of the honourable Hudson’s Bay Company. Edinburgh: W. Blackwood, 1848.

 Bell, Robert. Marble Island and the north-west coast of Hudson’s Bay (1887). [15 pages, 1 illustration]

Bullen, Frank T. The Men of the Merchant Service: Being the Polity of the Mercantile Marine for ‘Longshore Readers. London: Smith, Elder and Company, 1900.

Capper, Charles. The Port and Trade of London. London: Smith, Elder & Company, 1862.

Chappell, E. Narrative of a voyage to Hudson’s Bay in His Majesty’s ship Rosamond containing some account of the north-eastern coast of America and of the tribes inhabiting that remote region. London: J. Mawman, 1817.

Coats, William. The Geography of Hudson’s Bay: being the remarks of Captain W. Coats, in many voyages to that locality, between the years 1727 and 1751: with an appendix containing extracts from the log of Capt. Middleton on his voyage for the discovery of the North-west passage in H.M.S. Furnace in 1741–2. Edited by John Barrow. London: Hakluyt Society, 1852.

Conrad, Joseph. The Mirror of the Sea. 1906. Electronic text. London: Electric Book Co., ca. 2001.

Cowie, Isaac.  The Company of Adventurers: a narrative of seven years in the service of the Hudson’s Bay Company during 1867-1874, on the great buffalo plains; with historical and biographical notes and comments (Toronto: Briggs, 1913). [See pp. 67-102; includes photographs.]

 Cozzens, Frederick Swartwout. Acadia, or, A month with blue noses (New York: Derby & Jackson, 1859).

Dana, Richard Henry. Two Years Before the Mast: A Personal Narrative.1840. New edition. Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1868.

Dobbs, Arthur. An Account of the Countries ajoining to Hudson’s Bay, in the North-west Part of America: Containing a Description of their Lakes and Rivers, the Nature of the Soil and Climates, and their Methods of Commerce, &c. Shewing the Benefit to be made by settling Colonies, and opening a Trade in these Parts; whereby the French will be deprived in a great Measure of their Traffic in Furs, and the Communication between Canada and the Mississippi be cut off . London: J. Robinson, 1744.

______. A Short Narrative and Justification of the Proceedings of the Committee appointed by the Adventurers, to prosecute the Discovery of the Passage to the Western Ocean of America and to Open and Extend the Trade, and Settle the Countries beyond Hudson’s Bay… now laid before the publick, for their future consideration. 1744. Facsimile reprint, New York: Johnson Reprint, 1967.

Ellis, Henry. A Voyage to Hudson’s Bay by the Dobbs Galley and California, In the Years 1746 and 1747, For Di∫covering a North West Passage; with An accurate Survey of the Coat, and a hort Natural Hitory of the Country. London: H. Whitridge, 1748.

Franklin, John. Narrative of a journey to the shores of the Polar Sea in the years 1819, 20, 21 and 22. London: John Murray, 1823.

Gaspey, William. Tallis’s Illustrated London: In Commemoration of the Great Exhibition of All Nations in 1851, Forming a Complete Guide to the British Metropolis and Its Environs…. Vol. 2. London: John Tallis and Company, 1852.

Grenfell, Wilfred Thomas. A Labrador Doctor: The Autobiography of Wilfred Thomason Grenfell. New York: Houghton Mifflin,1919.

Gorton, G. W.  The Mariner’s Chroncle: containing narratives of the most remarkable disasters at sea, such as shipwrecks, storms, fires, and famines, also naval engagements, piratical adventures, incidents of discovery, and other extraordinary and interesting occurrences (1835).

Hakluyt, Richard. The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques and Discoveries of the English Nation: Made by sea or overland to the remote and farthest distant quarters of the earth, at any time within the compasse of these 1600 yeares. Vol. 1. 1599. Reprint of the 2d ed., edited by Edmund Goldsmid, reordered with indices, new illustrations and maps, Edinburgh: E. & G. Goldsmid, 1885.

Hamilton, N.E.S.A., ed. The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland…. 4 Vols.London: James S. Virtue and Co., 1868.

Hasted, Edward. The History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent. Vol. 3. Canterbury: W. Bristow, 1797. Electronic text. <http://www. uk/report.aspx?compid=62861> Accessed 12 November 2007.

Healy, W.J. Women of Red River, Being a Book Written from the Recollections of Women Surviving from the Red River Era. Winnipeg: Women’s Canadian Club, 1923.

Hearne, Samuel. A Journey from Prince of Waless Fort, in Hudsons Bay, to the northern oceanin the years 1769, 1770, 1771 & 1772. 1795. Edited by J.B. Tyrrell. Toronto: Champlain Society, 1911.

______. A Journey from Prince of Waless Fort, in Hudsons Bay, to the northern oceanin the years 1769, 1770, 1771 & 1772. 1795. Edited by Richard Glover. Toronto: Macmillan Company of Canada, 1972.

Hood, Robert. To the Arctic by Canoe, 1819–1821: The Journal and Paintings of Robert Hood, midshipman with Franklin. Edited by C. Stuart Houston. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1994.

James, Thomas. The Strange and Dangerous Voyage of Captaine Thomas James, in his intended Discovery of the Northwest Passage into the South Sea. London: John Legatt, for John Partridge, 1633.

Jérémie, Nicolas. Twenty years of York Factory, 1694–1714: Jérémie’s account of Hudson Strait and Bay. Translated from the French edition of 1720, with notes and introduction by R. Douglas and J.N. Wallace. Ottawa: Thorburn and Abbott, 1926.

Johnston, Harry. Pioneers in Canada. Pioneer Library Series. London: Gresham,1912.

Kennedy, William. A short narrative of the second voyage of the Prince Albert, in search of Sir John Franklin. London: W.H. Dalton, 1853.

MacDonald, Ranald. Ranald MacDonald: the narrative of his early life on the Columbia under the Hudson’s Bay Company’s regime, of his experiences in the Pacific whale fishery and of his great adventure to Japan: with a sketch of his later life on the western frontier, 1824-1894. Edited by William S. Lewis and Naojiro Murakami (Spokane, WA.: Published for the Eastern Washington State Historical Society of the Inland-American Printing Co., 1923).

M’Keevor, Thomas. A Voyage to Hudson’s Bay, during the Summer of 1812: Containing a particular account of the icebergs and other phenomena which present themselves in those regions: also, a description of the Esquimeaux and North American Indians, their manners, customs, dress, language, &c. &c. &c. London: Sir Richard Phillips and Co., 1819.

Miles, Pliny.  The advantages of ocean steam navigation, foreign and coastwise, to the commerce of Boston, and the manufactures of New England … (Boston: Printed by E.N. Morre & co., 1857).

Moritz, Karl. Travels in England in 1782. London, 1886. Electronic text.  <http://www.> Accessed 14 November 2007.

Nevins, J. Birbeck. A narrative of two voyages to Hudson’s Bay: with traditions of the North American Indians. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1847.

Paine, Ralph D. The Old Merchant Marine. 10th ed. Chronicles of America Series. Vol. 36. Edited by Allen Johnson. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1921.

Parry, William Edward. Journal of a Second Voyage for the Discovery of a North-West Passage From the Atlantic to the Pacific Performed in the Years 1821–22–23, In His Majesty’s Ships Fury and Hecla….New York: E. Duyckinck, G. Long, Collins & Co., Collins & Hannay, W.B. Gilley, and Henry I. Megarey, 1824.

Payne, F.F. Eskimo of Hudson Strait. Toronto: Canadian Institute, 1889.

Peary, Robert E. The North Pole: Its Discovery in 1909 under the auspices of the Peary Arctic Club. 1910. Reprint, New York: Greenwood Press, 1968.

Plimsoll, Samuel.  Our Seamen: An Appeal (London: Virtue & Co., 1873).

Rankine, W.J.M., and William J. Millar. A Manuel of Machinery and Millwork. C. Griffin & Company, 1883.

Read, John Meredith. A historical inquiry concerning Henry Hudson, his friends, relatives and early life, his connection with the Muscovy company and discovery of Delaware Bay. Albany, NY: J. Munsell, 1866.

Rivers of Great Britain: The Thames, from Source to Sea, descriptive, historical, pictorial. London: Cassell & Company, 1891.

Robson, Joseph. An Account Of Six Years Residence In Hudson’s-Bay, From 1733 to 1736, and 1744 to 1747: Containing a Variety of Facts, Observations, and Discoveries, tending to shew, I. The vast Importance of the Countries about Hudson’s Bay to Great Britain, on Account of the extensive Improvements that may be … (London: T. Jefferys, 1759).

Robson, Thomas. British Herald or Cabinet of Armorial Bearings of the Nobility & Gentry of Great Britain & Ireland From the Earliest to the Present Time … Collected and Arranged in Three Volumes. Vol. 1. Sunderland, UK: Turner & Marwood, 1830.

Saint-Clair, Roland William. The Saint-Clairs of the Isles: Being a History of the Sea-

Kings of Orkney and Their Scottish Successors of the Surname of Sinclair Arranged and Annotated By Roland William Saint-Clair. Auckland, New Zealand, 1898.

Schooling, William. The Hudson’s Bay Company, 1670–1920. London: The Hudson’s Bay Company, 1920.

Simmonds, P.L. A Dictionary of Trade Products, Commercial, Manufacturing, and Technical Terms: With a Definition of the Moneys, Weights, and Measures, of All Countries, reduced to the British Standard. London: G. Routledge & Co., 1858.

Smyth, W.H. The Sailor’s Word Book: An Alphabetical Digest of Nautical Terms,

Including Some More Especially Military and Scientific, But Useful to Seamen; As Well As Archaisms of Early Voyagers, etc. Revised edition. Edited by E. Belcher. Glasgow and Edinburgh: Blackie and Son, 1867.

Starbuck, Alexander. History of the American Whale Fishery: From its earliest inception to the year 1876.1878.Reprint, New York: Argosy-Antiquarian, 1964.

Timbs, John. Curiosities of London, Exhibiting the Most Rare and Remarkable Objects of Interest in this Metropolis. London:John Camden Hotten, 1867.

Tomlinson, H.M. London River. Garden City NY: Garden City Publishing, 1921.

______. Out of Soundings. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1931.

de Trémaudan, A.H. The Hudson Bay Road (1498–1915). London: J.M. Dent & Sons, 1915.

Tudor, John, The Orkneys and Shetland: Their Past and Present State (London: Edward Stanford, 1883), 166-176, relates fisheries and sailing lore of Shetland, from how to foretell whether a boat is lucky, to tales of sea monster ancestry running in families. (The entire book is worth a look for similar tales).

W.A.C., ed. The Ports, Harbours, Watering Places, and Coast Scenery of Great Britain, Illustrated by Views Taken on the Spot by W.H. Bartlett, with Descriptions by William Beattie M.D. Finden’s Ports and Harbours.Vol. 1. London: George Virtue, 1842.

Ward, Edward. The Wooden World Dissected: In the Character of a Ship of War, As Also the Character of All the Officers, From the Captain to the Common Sailor. 1707. Reprint, London: James Graham, 1795.

Wilson, Alexander, and Charles Lucian Bonaparte et al., eds. American Ornithology: Or the Natural History of the Birds. The American Ornithology. Vol. 4. Edinburgh: Constable & Co., 1831.

Woodley, George. A View of the Present State of the Scilly Islands: Exhibiting Their Vast Importance to the British Empire; the Improvements of which They are Susceptible; and a Particular Account of the Means Lately Adopted for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Inhabitants, by the Establishment and Extension of Their Fisheries. London: n.p., 1822.

IV. Newspaper, Magazine and Journal Articles, Pamphlets, and Sheet Music

Abbott, J.S.C. “Ocean Life.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 5, no. 25 (June 1852): 61–66.

“Additions to Captain Comer’s Map of Southampton Island.” Bulletin of the American Geographical Society 45, no. 7 (1913): 516–18.

“The Alert in Hudson Bay.” New York Times (31 May 1885): 6.

Anderson, William P. “The Hudson Bay Expedition of 1884.” Science 5, no. 110 (13 March 1885): 213–15.

“Arctic Expeditions from England.” Nautical Magazine and Naval Chronicle for 1845 (1845): 117–35.

“The Arctic Search.” North American Review 80, no. 167 (April 1855): 307–43.

“Back From Hudson’s Bay.” St. John’s Daily News (18 September 1920).

Balch, Thomas Willing. “The Hudsonian Sea is a Great Open Sea.” American Journal of International Law 7, no. 3 (July 1913): 546–65.

Bartlett, Robert A. “Peary’s Extended Exploration of Arctic Lands Culminating in the Attainment of the North Pole.” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 82, no. 5 (29 June 1940): 935–47.

Becher, A.B. “The Voyages of Martin Frobisher.” Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London 12 (1842): 1–20.

Bell, Charles N. “Navigation of Hudson Bay and Straits.” Transactions, 1st ser., no. 7(Read 10 May 1883). Manitoba Historical Society. < transactions/1/hudsonnavigation.shtml> Accessed 2005.

______. “Henry’s Journal.” Transactions, 1st ser., no. 37 (Read 9 May 1889). Manitoba Historical Society. < shtml> Accessed 2005.

Bell, Charles Napier. “The Old Forts of Winnipeg (1738–1927).” Transactions, n.s., no.3 (May 1927): 1–39.

______. “The Journal of Henry Kelsey, 1691–1692: The First White Man to Reach the

Saskatchewan River from Hudson Bay, and the First to See the Buffalo and Grizzly Bear of the Canadian Plains – With Notes on Some Other Experiences of the Man.” Transactions, 2d ser., no. 4 (Read 24 May 1928). Manitoba Historical Society. <; Accessed 2006.

Bell, Robert. “On the Commercial Importance of Hudson’s Bay, with Remarks on Recent

______. Surveys and Investigations.” Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society and Monthly Record of Geography, n.s.,3, no. 10 (October 1881): 577–86.

______. “A Survey in Baffinland, with a Short Description of the Country.” Geographical Journal 18, no. 1 (July 1901): 25–46.

“Bellot: His Adventures and Death in the Arctic Regions.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 12, no. 67 (December 1855): 96–101.

Bletcher, Mary. “Degree in Engineering Helped Mother of 10.” Winnipeg Free Press (5 June 1965): 16.

“‘Bob’ Bartlett Back to the Arctic to Hunt Big Game: Peary’s Skipper, Tired of Civilization, Is Taking an Expedition to a Sportsman’s Paradise in the Polar Regions.” New York Times (14 May 1911): SM11.

Bray, Reynold. “Notes on the Birds of Southampton Island, Baffin Island and Melville Peninsula.” Edited by T.H. Manning. The Auk 60, no. 4 (October 1943): 504–36.

Brutus. “Diary of an H.B.C. Apprentice Clerk on a Voyage to Hudson Bay.” The Beaver (January 1922): 7–9.

Bryant, Henry E. “Notes on an Early American Arctic Expedition.” Geographical Journal 33, no. 1 (January 1909): 72–75.

Bullen, Frank T. “The Way of the Ship.” The Century 58, no. 5 (September 1889): 738–42.

“By Ship of Sail to Hudson Bay, 1723: Extract from Sailing Orders and Instructions to Capt. Geo. Spurril, Commander of ye Hudson’s Bay Fregate.” The Beaver 3, no. 10(July 1923): 381.

Cameron, W.B. “Runaway Ship.” The Beaver 28, no. 1 (June 1948): 5–9.

Camsell, Charles. “The Unexplored Areas of Continental Canada.” Geographical Journal 48, no. 3 (September 1916): 249–57.

“Capt. Henry Bishop, A Famous Northern Navigator Who Sailed into the Bay for Forty Years.” The Beaver 10, no. 3(December 1930): 128.

“Captain Charles Graham.” Obituary. Souvenir reprint. Journal of Commerce (Liverpool) 9 (December 1922).

Cellier, Alfred. “The Old English Ballad, Billy Taylor (A.D. 1790) arranged as a Hornpipe.” Sheet music. New York: Wm. A. Pond and Company, 1881.

“Changes in Company’s Organization.” The Beaver 5, no. 4 (September 1925): 167–68.

“The Christie Family and H.B.C.: Builder of Two Fort Garrys and His Seven Descendants Gave Total of 238 Years’ Service to the Company.” The Beaver 3, no. 11 (1923): 417–19.

“Close of French Government Transport Work: A.M. Irvine and Staff Leave Service with Shutting of Montreal Agency; Great War Work of the H.B.C. Recalled.” The Beaver 1, no. 8 (May 1921): 20–21.

Cormie, John A. “The Hudson Bay Route.” Geographical Review 4, no. 1 (July 1917): 26–40.

Cotter, H.M.S. “Some Famous H.B.C. Captains and Ships.” Parts 1–3. The Beaver 1, no. 7 (April 1921): 2–6; no. 9 (June 1921): 32–33; no. 10 (July 1921): 23–24.

______. “The Great Labrador Gale, 1885.” The Beaver 12, no. 2 (September 1932): 80–84.

______. “The Ship ‘Prince of Wales’: 1850, Full Rigged Ship in Hudson’s Bay; 1934, New Zealand Coal Hulk.” The Beaver 13, no. 4 (March 1934): 42–44.

______. “Company Sailing Ships.” The Beaver 14, no. 2 (September 1934): 32–33.

Dana, [Richard Henry], “ Sketches of Zanzibar: written during a sojourn on that island, from May 20th to August 10th, 1843,” The American Whig Review 0002, no. 2 (August 1845): 154-162.

[Dana,] “Extract from the ‘Journal of a Whale Cruiser’,” The American Whig Review 0002, no. 3 (September 1845): 230-235.

Dennis, William. “The Sources of North-Western History.” Transactions,1st ser., no. 6. (Read 1883). Manitoba Historical Society. < transactions/1/northwesthistory.shtml> Accessed 2006.

Dixon, G. Graham. “Notes on the Records of the Customs House, London.” English Historical Review 34, no. 133 (January 1919): 71–84.

Dwight, Jonathan. “The Status of ‘Larus thayeri, Thayer’s Gull.’” The Auk 34, no. 4 (October 1917): 413–14.

Dymond, Joseph, and William Wales. “Observations on the State of the Air, Winds, Weather, &c. Made at Prince of Wales’s Fort, on the North-West Coast of Hudson’s Bay, in the Years 1768 and 1769.” Philosophical Transactions (1683–1775) 60 (1770): 137–78.

Ellis, George E. “Hudson Bay Company, 1670–1870.” Journal of the American Geographical Society of New York 18 (1886): 127–36.

“Expedition to Hudson Bay and Northward.” Bulletin of the American Geographical Society 37, no. 7 (1905): 408–11.

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Tabili, Laura. “We Ask for British Justice”: Workers and Racial Difference in Late Imperial Britain. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1994.

Taylor, Rupert Leslie. The Native Link: Tracing One’s Roots to the Fur Trade. Victoria, BC: Pencrest Publications, 1984.

Tepperman, Lorne, and R. Jack Richardson. An Introduction to Sociology: The Social World. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1991.

Thomas, Audrey Callahan. Isobel Gunn: a novel. Toronto: Penguin Canada, 1999.

Thompson, E. P. The Making of the English Working Class. New York: Vintage Books, 1963.

______. The Poverty of Theory and Other Essays. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1978.

Van Kirk, Sylvia. “Many Tender Ties”: Women in Fur-Trade Society in Western Canada, 1670–1870. Winnipeg: Watson and Dwyer Publishing, 1980.

Vaughan, Alden T. Transatlantic Encounters: American Indians in Britain, 1500–1776. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Vickers, Daniel, and Vince Walsh. Young Men and the Sea: Yankee Seafarers in the Age of Sail. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007.

Vogel, Lise. Mothers on the Job: Maternity Policy in the U.S. Workplace. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1993.

Wallace, Wm. Stewart. A History of the Canadian People. Toronto: Copp Clark, 1930.

Warkentin, John, and Richard I. Ruggles, eds. Manitoba Historical Atlas: A Selection of Facsimile Maps, Plans, and Sketches from 1612 to 1969. Winnipeg: Historical and Scientific Society of Manitoba, 1970.

Watson, Norman. The Dundee Whalers. East Linton, Scotland: Tuckwell Press, 2003.

Winsor, Naboth. Stalwart Men and Sturdy Ships: A History of the Seal Fishery by the Sealers of Bonavista Bay North, Newfoundland. Gander, NL: Oral History Job Development Project, 1986.

Woodward, David, John Brian Harley, and G. Malcolm Lewis. The History of Cartography: Cartography in the Traditional African, American, Arctic, Australian, and Pacific Societies. Totawa, NJ: Humana Press, 1998.

Yates, Nigel, ed. Kent in the Twentieth Century. Rochester, NY: Boydell & Brewer, 2001.

II. Articles

Acker, Joan. “Class, Gender, and the Relations of Distribution.” Signs 13, no. 3 (Spring 1988): 473–79.

Ahronson, Arni, and James E. Cameron. “The Nature and Consequences of Group Cohesion in a Military Sample.” Military Psychology 19, no. 1 (2007): 9–25.

Alexander, David. “Literacy among Canadian and Foreign Seamen, 1863–1899.” In Working Men Who Got Wet: Proceedings of the Fourth Conference of the Atlantic Canada Shipping Project, July 24–July 26, 1980, edited by Rosemary Ommer and Gerald Panting, 3–33. St. John’s, NL: Maritime History Group, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1980.

Altman, Ida, and Reginald D. Butler. “The Contact of Cultures: Perspectives on the Quincentenary.” American Historical Review 99, no. 2 (April 1994): 478–503.

“An Old H.B.C. Skipper (The Late Captain William Barfield).” The Beaver 4, no. 7 (April 1924): 260.

“Arctic Mariner.” The Beaver 25, no. 3 (December 1945): 46.

Arthur, M. Elizabeth. “The Concept of the Good Indians: An Albany River 19th Century Managerial Perspective.” Canadian Journal of Native Studies 5 (1985): 61–74.

Aubert, Vilhelm, and Oddvar Arner. “On the Social Structure of the Ship.” Acta Sociologica 3, no. 300(1958): 200–19.

Baillie, James L. “Naturalists on Hudson Bay.” The Beaver 26, no. 3 (December 1946): 36–39.

Bajkov, A.D. “The Ice Conditions of Hudson’s Bay.” The Beaver 20, no. 4 (March 1941): 15–19.

Ball, Tim. “Company Town: Rugged Stromness in the Orkneys Sent Many Men to the Fur Trade.” The Beaver 68, no. 3 (June/July 1988): 43–52.

Barr, William. “The Eighteenth Century Trade between Ships of the Hudson’s Bay Company and the Hudson Strait Inuit.” Arctic47, no. 3(September 1994): 236–46.

Barratt, Glynn R. “Whalers and Weavers,” The Beaver 57, no. 3 (winter 1977): 54-59.

Belyea, Barbara. “Amerindian Maps: The Explorer as Translator.” Journal of Historical Geography 18, no. 3 (1992): 267–77.

______. “Inland journeys, native maps.” Cartographica 33, no. 2 (Summer 1996): 1–16.

Bender, Thomas. “The Boundaries and Constituencies of History.” American Literary History 18, no. 2 (Summer 2006): 267–82.

Bengston, Bennie. “Aurora Borealis.” The Beaver 26, no. 2 (September 1946): 12–15.

Berkes, F., A. Hughes, P.J. George, R.J. Preston, B.D. Cummins, and J. Turner. “The Persistence of Aboriginal Land Use: Fish and Wildlife Harvest Areas in the Hudson and James Bay Lowland, Ontario.” Arctic48, no. 1 (March 1995): 81–83.

Binney, George. “Hudson Bay in 1928.” Geographical Journal 72, no. 1 (July 1929): 1–25.

Blair, Don. “Summer Voyage in Hudson Bay.” The Beaver 34, no. 2 (Autumn 1954): 30–37.

______. “On Board the Fort Hearne.” The Beaver 35, no. 2 (Autumn 1955): 24–33.

Blondheim, Menahem. “Discovering ‘The Significance of Communication’: Harold Adams Innis as Social Constructivist.” Canadian Journal of Communication 29, no. 2 (2004): 119–43.

Bolus, Malvina. “The Son of I. Gunn.” Beaver 51, no. 3 (Winter 1971): 23–26.

Bowsfield, Hartwell. “Radisson in Hudson Bay.” Manitoba Pageant 11, no. 2 (Spring 1966). Manitoba Historical Society. < radisson.shtml> Accessed 12 January 2009.

Braden, Kathleen E. “Region, Semple, and Structuration.” Geographical Review 82, no. 3 (July 1992): 237–43.

Breining, Greg. “A Path to the Past.” Minneapolis Star Tribune (20 August 2000).

Brow, James. “Notes on Community, Hegemony, and the Uses of the Past.” Anthropological Quarterly 63, no. 1 (January 1990): 1–6.

Brown, Jennifer S.H. “Ultimate Respectability: Fur-Trade Children in the Civilized World.” Parts 1 and 2. The Beaver 308, no. 3 (Winter 1977): 4–10; no. 4 (Spring 1978): 48–55.

Broyles, Michael J. “‘The Master’s Measure’: Remunerative Patterns for Hudson’s Bay Company Captains, 1726–1736.” Northern Mariner/Le Marin du nord 8, no. 3 (July 1998): 1–8.

Butterfield, L.H. Review of Queen Anne’s American Kings,by Richmond P. Bond. William and Mary Quarterly,3d ser., 10, no. 3 (July 1953): 450–51.

C.G.L.B. Review of Arctic Harpooner: A Voyage on the Schooner Abbie Bradford, 1878–1879, by Robert Ferguson, edited by Leslie Dalyrymple Stair. Geographical Journal 91, no. 5 (May 1938): 486–87.

Cadigan, Sean T. “‘But for the loves of the fishes’: Maritime labour and ecological culture in nineteenth-century Newfoundland.” In Maritime labour: Contributions to the history of work at sea, 1500-2000. Edited by Richard Gorski. 102–28. Amsterdsam: Aksant, 2007.

Cameron, Alan. “Ships of Three Centuries.” The Beaver 50, no. 1 (Summer 1970): 4–21.

Careless, J.M.S. “Limited Identities – Ten Years Later.” Manitoba History,no. 1 (1981). Manitoba Historical Society. < limitedidentities.shtml> Accessed 13 January 2009.

Carlos, Ann M., and Stephen Nicholas. “Agency Problems in Early Chartered Companies: The Case of the Hudson’s Bay Company.” Journal of Economic History 50, no. 4 (December 1990): 853–75.

______.“Managing the Manager: An Application of the Principal Agent Model to the Hudson’s Bay Company.” Oxford Economic Papers, n.s.,45, no. 2 (April 1993): 243–56.

______. “Theory and History: Seventeenth-Century Joint-Stock Chartered Trading Companies.” Journal of Economic History 56, no. 4 (December 1996): 916–24.

Carretta, Vincent. “Anne and Elizabeth: The Poet as Historian in Windsor Forest.” Studies in English Literature, 1500–1900 21, no. 3 (Summer 1981): 425–37.

Catchpole, A.J.W. “Hudson’s Bay Company Ships’ Log-Books as Sources of Sea Ice Data, 1751–1870.” In Climate since AD 1500, edited by Raymond S. Bradley and Philip D. Jones, 17–39. New York: Routledge, 1995.

Catchpole, A.J.W., and Marcia-Anne Faurer. “Ships’ Log-Books, Sea Ice and the Cold Summer of 1816 in Hudson Bay and Its Approaches.” Arctic 38, no. 2 (June 1985): 121–28.

Catchpole, A.J.W., D.W. Moodie, and D. Milton. “Freeze-up and Break-up of Estuaries on Hudson Bay in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries.” Canadian Geographer 20, no. 3 (28 June 2008): 279–97.

Chant, D.A., E.E. Lindquist, J.E.H. Martin, and W.R. Allen. “Rupert River by Canoe.” The Beaver 43,no. 4 (Spring 1964): 32–39.

Clark, G.V. “An Arctic Veteran.” The Beaver 50, no. 1 (Summer 1970): 64–67.

Clouston, J. Storer. “Orkney and the Hudson’s Bay Company.” Parts 1–3. The Beaver 16, no. 3 (December 1936): 4–8; no. 4 (March 1937): 38–43, 62;17, no. 2 (September 1937):37–39.

Coates, Ken. “The Rediscovery of the North: Towards a Conceptual Framework for the Study of the North/Northern Regions.” Northern Review 12, no. 13 (Summer/Winter 1994): 15–43.

Cockburn, R.H. “R.M. Ballantyne (1825–1894).” Arctic37, no. 1 (March 1984): 70–71.

“Company Sailing Ships 1668–1928.” The Beaver 22, no. 2 (September 1942): 24–28.

Cooper, Barry. “Alexander Kennedy Isbister, a Respectable Victorian.” Canadian Ethnic Studies/Etudes Ethniques au Canada 17, no. 2 (1985): 44–63.

Corfield, Penelope J. “How to get Back.” Review of Why History Matters by John Tosh, The Curse of History by Jeremy Black, Making History Now and Then by David Cannadine, and The Historians’ Paradox by Charles Hoffer. The New York Times Literary Supplement (21 November 2008): 22.

Coutts, Robert. “Buried on the Bay: The Sloop Creek Schooner at York Factory and Hudson’s Bay Company Marine Transport, 1878–1915.” In Papers Presented at the Rupert’s Land Colloquium, Edmonton, 1994. Winnipeg: Centre for Rupert’s Land Studies, 1994.

Craig, Beatrice. Review of Merchant Credit and Labour Strategies in Historical Perspective, edited by Rosemary Ommer. William and Mary Quarterly, 3d ser.,51, no. 2 (April 1994): 324–26.

Craven, Paul, and Tom Traves. “Dimensions of Paternalism: Discipline and Culture in Canadian Railway Operations in the 1850s.” In On the Job: Confronting the Labour Process in Canada, edited by Craig Heron and Robert H. Storey, 47–74.

Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1986.

Creighton, Margaret S. “Fraternity in the American Forecastle, 1830–1870.” New England Quarterly 63, no. 4 (December 1990): 531–57.

Crisp, W.G. “Amundsen’s Maud.” The Beaver 35, no. 1 (Summer 1955): 43–47.

Crompton, Rosemary. “Class Theory and Gender.” British Journal of Sociology 40, no. 4 (1989): 565–87.

Cummings, Arabus B. “Biography of Dr. John Rae, HBC Fur Trader, Traveller and Explorer.” The Beaver 6, no. 6 [4] (March 1927): 66–67.

Curtis, Bruce, and Lorna Weir. “Crisis Talk: Comments on McLaughlin’s ‘Canada’s Impossible Science.’” Canadian Journal of Sociology/Cahiers canadiens de sociologie 30, no. 4 (Autumn 2005): 503–11.

Cuthbertson, G.A. “Fur Traders on Fresh Water.” The Beaver 14, no. 3 (December 1934): 26–30, 41.

______. “The ‘Erik’s’ Saga.” The Beaver 16, no. 1 (June 1936): 52–55, 66.

Daly, Richard. “Being and Becoming in a World That Won’t Stand Still: The Case of the Metlakatla.” Social Analysis 49, no. 1 (Spring 2005): 21–44.

Deacon, G.E.R. “Physics of the Ocean.” British Journal of Applied Physics 12, no. 7 (1961): 329–32.

Decker, Jody F. “Scurvy at York: A Dread Affliction Lingered at the Bay.” The Beaver 69, no. 1 (February/March 1989): 42–48.

Deignan, G. “HBC and the Smithsonian.” The Beaver 27, no. 1 (June 1947): 3–7.

Dickinson, Paul. “Smith’s Coasters: The Shipping Interests of C.G. Smith 1889–1966.” South African Journal of Economic History 3, no. 1 (1988): 20–32.

Diubaldo, Richard J. “The North in Canadian History: An Outline.” Fram: The Journal of Polar Studies 1, no. 1 (1984): 187–96.

Divall, Colin. Review of Institutions in the Transport and Communications Industries: State and Private Actors in the Making of Institutional Patterns, 1850–1990, edited by Lena Anderson-Skog and Olle Krantz. Technology and Culture 41, no. 3 (July 2000): 635–36.

Dove, Michael F. “Voyages to Rupert’s Land: The Hudson’s Bay Company’s Maritime Component, 1670–1770.” In Selected Papers of Rupert’s Land Colloquium 2002, compiled by David G. Malaher, 15–29. Winnipeg: Centre for Rupert’s Land Studies, 2002.

______. “Plying the Northernmost Atlantic Trading Route to the New World: The Hudson’s Bay Company and the British Seaborne Empire.” In The English Atlantic Revisited: Essays Honouring Professor Ian K. Steele,edited by Nancy L. Rhoden, 174–205. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s Press, 2007.

Eccles, W.J. “A Belated Review of Harold Adams Innis, The Fur Trade in Canada.” Canadian Historical Review 60, no. 4 (December 1979): 419–41.

Ellis, F.H. “Viking of the Skies.” The Beaver 26, no. 2 (September 1946): 16–19.

Ellis, Frank H. Review of Pilots of the Purple Twilight,by Philip H. Godsell. The Beaver 36, no. 2 (Autumn 1956): 58.

Ewald, Janet J. “Crossers of the Sea: Slaves, Freedmen, and Other Migrants in the Northwestern Indian Ocean, c. 1750–1914.” American Historical Review 105, no. 1 (2000): 69–91.

Farr, James. “A Slow Boat to Nowhere: The Multi-Racial Crews of the American Whaling Industry.” Journal of Negro History 68, no. 2 (Spring 1983): 158–70.

Featherstone, David. “Spatial Relations and the Materialities of Political Conflict: The Construction of Entangled Political Identities in the London and Newcastle Port Strikes of 1768.” Geoforum 35, no. 6 (November 2004): 701–11.

______. “Atlantic Networks, Antagonisms and the Formation of Subaltern Political Identities.” Social and Cultural Geography 6, no. 3 (June 2005): 387–404.

Findlay, George. “Airplane Visits Moose Factory.” The Beaver 2, no. 8 (May 1922): 10.

Finnie, Richard. “Trading into the North-West Passage.” The Beaver 17, no. 3(December 1937): 46–53.

______. “Farewell Voyages: Bernier and the ‘Arctic.’” The Beaver 54, no. 1 (Summer 1974): 44–54.

Fischer, Lewis R. “A Bridge across the Water: Liverpool Shipbrokers and the Transfer of Eastern Canadian Sailing Vessels, 1855–1880.” Northern Mariner/Le Marin du nord 3, no. 3 (July 1993): 49–59.

Flatman, Joe. “Cultural Biographies, Cognitive Landscapes and Dirty Old Bits of Boat: ‘Theory’ in Maritime Archaeology.”International Journal of Nautical Archaeology32, no. 2 (October 2003): 143–57.

Fleming, Anne. “Questions for Isabelle Gunn.” Prairie Fire 15, no. 1 (Spring 1994): 13639.

Francis, W. Nelson. “Hakluyt’s Voyages: An Epic of Discovery.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3d ser., 12, no. 3 (July 1955): 447–55.

Franck, Georg. “Time, Actuality, Novelty and History: Some Facets of a Phenomenon Still Awaiting Comprehension.” In Life and Motion of Socio-Economic Units, edited by Andrew U. Frank, Jonathan Raper, and Jean-Paul Cheyan, 111–23. London: Taylor & Francis, 2001.

Fraser, R.J. “Early Canadian Icebreakers.” Arctic16, no. 1 (March 1963): 2–7.

Freudenberger, Herman. “Fashion, Sumptuary Laws, and Business.” Business History Review 37, no. 1/2 (Spring/Summer 1963): 37–48.

Friedman, Adele C. “The Broadside Ballad Virago: Emancipated Women in British Working Class Literature.” Journal of Popular Culture 13, no. 3 (1980): 469–75.

Fuller, Oliver. “The Mariners at Sloop Cove.” The Beaver 43, no. 1 (Summer 1963): 44–53.

Geci, Lynn. “Squanto and the Pilgrims: On Planting Corn ‘in the Manner of the Indians.” In The Invented Indian: Cultural Fictions and Government Policies, edited by James A. Clifton, 71–89. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2004.

Gilbert, William. “Guy Not Gosnold: A Correction.” Post-Medieval Archaeology 41, no. 2 (2007): 264–69.

Gimpel, Charles. “Ports of Call.” The Beaver 39, no. 1 (Summer 1959): 39–47.

Glover, R. “Moses Norton (ca. late 1720s–1773).” Arctic 35, no. 3 (September 1982): 440–41.

Glover, Richard G. “Sidelights on SL Hearne.” The Beaver 26, no. 4 (March 1947): 101–4.

______. “Samuel Hearne: Explorer and Naturalist.” Manitoba Pageant 4, no. 3 (April 1959). Manitoba Historical Society. < hearne.shtml> Accessed 9 October 2007.

Goldring, Philip. “Inuit Economic Responses to Euro-American Contacts: Southeast Baffin Island, 1824–1940.” In Historical Papers 21, no. 1, edited by Dana Johnson and Louise Ouellette, 146–72. Ottawa: Canadian Historical Association/La Société historique du Canada, 1986.

Graham, G. S. “The Naval Defence of British North America 1739–1763.” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 4th ser.,30 (1948): 95–110.

Hachey, H.B. “Canadian Interest in Arctic Oceanography.” Arctic2, no. 1 (May 1949): 28–35.

Hall, Frank. “Seven Oaks House Opened as a Museum.” Manitoba Pageant 4, no. 2 (January 1959). Manitoba Historical Society. < pageant/04/sevenoaksmuseum.shtml> Accessed 15 February 2009.

______. “York Factory Saved.” Manitoba Pageant 14, no. 1 (Autumn 1968). Manitoba Historical Society. <; Accessed 8 November 2006.

Hare, F. Kenneth. “The Westerlies.” Geographical Review 50, no. 3 (July 1960): 345–67.

Harper, Irene M. “The First Complete Exploration of Hudson’s Bay: Pierre Esprit Radisson and Medard Chouard Groseilliers.” Cambridge Historical Journal 3, no. 1 (1929): 74–82.

Harrington, Lyn. “Triumph of the Trumpeter.” The Beaver 35, no. 3 (Winter 1955): 14–19.

Harris, Cole. “Power, Modernity, and Historical Geography.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 81, no. 4 (December 1991): 671–83.

______. Review of Making Histories and Constructing Human Geographies: The Local Transformation of Practice, Power Relations, and Consciousness, by Allan Pred. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 82, no. 1 (March 1992): 176–77.

Haskell, Thomas L. Review. “Farewell to Fallibilism: Robert Berkhofer’s Beyond the Great Story and the Allure of the Postmodern.” History and Theory 37, no. 3 (October 1998): 347–69.

Hawthorne, H.B. “Among the Indians of Canada.” The Beaver 34, no. 1 (Summer 1954): 3–7.

Hinderaker,Eric. “The ‘Four Indian Kings’ and the Imaginative Construction of the First British Empire.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3d ser., 53, no. 3 (July 1996): 487–526.

Hobsbawm , E.J. “From Social History to the History of Society.” In Historical Studies Today, edited by Felix Gilbert and Stephen R. Graubard, 1–26. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1972.

Holt, Thomas C. “Marking: Race, Race-making, and the Writing of History.” American Historical Review 100, no. 1 (February 1995): 1–20.

Hooper, W. “The Tudor Sumptuary Laws.” English Historical Review 30, no. 119 (July 1915): 433–49.

Hopwood, V.G. “New Light on David Thompson.” The Beaver 37, no. 1 (Summer 1957): 26–31.

______. “More Light on David Thompson.” The Beaver 37, no. 3 (Autumn 1957): 58.

Hourde, R.N. “Sophisticated Eskimos.” The Beaver 32, no. 2 (September 1952): 36–37.

Houston, C. Stuart. “John Rae (1813–1893).” Arctic4, no. 1 (March 1987): 78–79.

Innis, Harold A. “The Hudson Bay Railway.” Geographical Review 20, no. 1 (January 1930): 1–30.

Johnson, Alice M. “The Mythical Land of Buss” The Beaver 22, no. 3 (December 1942): 43–47.

______. “Early Ships in Hudson’s Bay.” The Beaver 26, no. 1 (June 1946): 10–13.

______. “Ambassadress of Peace.” The Beaver 32, no. 3(December 1952): 42–45.

______. “Life on the Hayes.” The Beaver 37, no. 3 (Winter 1957): 38–43.

Jones, Mark Peter. “Posthuman Agency: Between Theoretical Traditions.” Sociological Theory 14, no. 3 (November 1996): 290–309.

Jonkers, A.R.T., Andrew Jackson, and Anne Murray. “Four Centuries of Geomagnetic Data from Historical Records.” Reviews of Geophysics 41, no. 2 (June 2003): 2.1–2.36.

______. “Parallel Meridians: Diffusion and Change in Early-Modern Oceanic Reckoning.” In Noord-Zuid in Oostindisch perspectief, edited by J. Parmentier, 17–42. The Hague: Waburg, 2005.

Judd, Carol M. “Native Labour and Social Stratification in the Hudson’s Bay Northern Department, 1770–1870.” Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 17 (1980): 305–14.

Judd, Carol, and Arthur J. Ray, “Moose Factory’s Maritime Heritage.” Report prepared for Ontario Ministry of Culture and Recreation, Amisk Heritage Planning and Research, 1982.

Judson, Olivia. “The Selfless Gene.” The Atlantic (October 2007): 90–98.

Kennedy, Mary L. “Lieutenant Joseph René Bellot.” The Beaver 18, no. 1 (June 1938): 43–45.

Kenyon, W.A. “Old Fort Albany Relics.” The Beaver 41, no. 1 (Summer 1961): 21–23.

Kindle, E.M. “The James Bay Coastal Plain: Notes on a Journey.” Geographical Review 15, no. 2 (April 1925): 226–36.

Kinnicut, Lincoln N. “Plymouth’s Debt to the Indians.” Harvard Theological Review 13, no. 4 (October 1920): 345–61.

Klein, Herbert S. “The Old Social History and the New Social Sciences.” Journal of Social History 39, no. 3 (Spring 2006): 936–44.

Knuth, Eigil. “An Outline of the Archeology of Peary Land.” Arctic5, no. 1 (March 1952): 17–33.

______. “The Paleo-Eskimo Culture of Northeast Greenland Elucidated by Three New Sites.” American Antiquity 19, no. 4 (April 1954): 367–81.

Kroeker, Amy. “A ‘Place’ through Language: Postcolonial Implications of Mennonite/s writing in Western Canada.” In Is Canada Postcolonial? Unsettling Canadian Literature. Edited by Laura F.E. Moss. 238-251. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2003.

Kuhn, Thomas S. “[The New Reality in Art and Science]: Comment.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 11, no. 4, Special Issue on Cultural Innovation (October 1969): 403–12.

“Labrador District.” The Beaver 20 no. 3 (February 1940): 52.

Laidler, Gita J., and Pootoogoo Elee. “Human geographies of sea ice: freeze/thaw processes around Cape Dorset, Nunavut, Canada.” Polar Record 44, no. 1 (January 2008): 51–76.

Land, Isaac. “Tidal Waves: The New Coastal History.” Journal of Social History (Spring 2007): 731–43.

Lane, Frederic C. “Tonnages, Medieval and Modern.” Economic History Review, n.s., 17, no. 2 (1964): 213–33.

Larmour, W.T. Review of Clear Lands and Icy Seas,by Theodora C. Stanwell-Fletcher.

The Beaver 38, no. 2 (Autumn 1958): 56.

Learmonth, David. “To Labrador by Sail.” The Beaver 78, no. 92 (April/May 1998): 35–38.

Lee, Thomas E. “On the Trail of the Northmen.” The Beaver 63, no. 3 (Winter 1983): 31–38.

Légaré, André. “Nunavut: The Construction of a Regional Collective Identity in the Canadian Arctic.” Wicazo Sa Review 17, no. 2, Sovereignty and Governance 2 (Autumn 2002): 65–89.

Lemisch, Jesse. “Jack Tar in the Streets: Merchant Seamen in the Politics of Revolutionary America.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3d ser., 25, no. 3 (July 1968): 371–407.

Leveson-Gower, R.H.G. “Voyages for Discovery of the Northwest Passage.” The Beaver 15, no. 1 (June 1936): 45–49.

Lewis, Martin W. “Dividing the Ocean Sea.” Geographical Review 89, no. 2 (April 1999): 188–214.

Logan, Godden Mackay. “Antarctica: Discovery and Exploration.” Mawson’s Huts Historical Site – Draft Conservation Management Plan (August 2000): 13–30.

Lomax, Alfred L. “Dr McLouglin’s Tropical Trade Route.” The Beaver 43, no. 4 (Spring 1964): 10–15.

Long, John S. “Treaty No. 9 and Fur Trade Company Families: Northeastern Ontario’s Halfbreeds, Indians, Petitioners and Métis.” In The New Peoples: Being and Becoming Métis in North America, edited by Jacqueline Peterson and Jennifer S.H. Brown, 137–62. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press, 1985.

______. “Hannah Bay Murders of 1832.” History Workshop, Temiskaming Abitibi Heritage Association (29 April 2000): 37–56.

Lorenz, Chris. “Comparative Historiography: Problems and Perspectives.”History and Theory 38, no. 1 (February 1999): 25–39.

Lubbock, Basil. “The Days of the Tea Clippers.” The Beaver 8, no. 3 (December 1928): 104–6.

Lunn, Kevin. “York Factory National Historic Site of Canada: Planning the Future for a Place with a Momentous Past.” Manitoba History (22 September 2004). Manitoba Historical Society. <; Accessed 13 January 2009.

McCook, James. “Sir George Simpson in the Hawaiian Islands.” The Beaver 56, no. 3 (Winter 1976): 46–53.

McCusker, John J. “The Tonnage of Ships Engaged in British Colonial Trade during the Eighteenth Century.” Research in Economic History 6 (1981): 73-105.

MacEachern, Alan. “Cool Customer: The Arctic Voyage of J.E. Bernier.” The Beaver 84, no. 4 (September 2004): 30–35.

MacEwan, Grant. “Honourable John.” Manitoba Pageant 5, no. 3 (April 1960). Manitoba Historical Society. < shtml> Accessed 5 May 2006.

Macfie, John. “Centenary at Severn House 1770.” The Beaver 49, no. 4 (Spring 1970): 42-49.

McGoogan, Ken. “Encounter: Esteemed as Governor of Prince of Wales Fort, Moses Norton Formed an Attachment His Employee Samuel Hearne Couldn’t Bring Himself to Name.” The Beaver 82, no. 6 (December 2002/January 2003): 51.

McKee, Christopher. Review of Shipboard Life and Organization, 1731–1815, by Brian Lavery. Journal of Military History 63, no. 4 (October 1999): 967–69.

McQuaig, Carol Bennett. “The Voyage of the ‘John Barry’: Farewell to Old Ireland.” The Beaver 74, no. 1 (February/March 1994): 22–27.

Malaher, David. “Port Nelson and the Hudson Bay Railway.” Manitoba History 8 (Autumn 1984). Manitoba Historical Society. < history/08/hudsonbayrailway.shtml> Accessed 12 February 2007.

Manning, T.H. “The Foxe Basin Coasts of Baffin Island.” Geographical Journal 101, no. 5/6 (May 1943): 225–51.

______. “Explorations on the East Coast of Hudson Bay.” Geographical Journal 109, no. 1/3 (January–March 1947): 58–75.

Martin, Kenneth R. “Life and Death at Marble Island, 1864–73.” The Beaver 58, no. 4 (Spring 1979): 48–56.

Martin, Thibault. “Rivalités franco-anglaises en Hudsonie (1904–1926), à l’origine de la structuration du territoire.” Recherches Amérindiennes au Quebec 32, no. 2 (2002): 71–81.

Masback, Frederic J. “Conrad’s Jonahs.” College English 22, no. 5 (February 1961): 328–33.

Maxwell, Ian. “Around the World: The Shetland and Orkney Islands.” Your Family Tree 39 (July 2006): 55.

“The Medical Pooh-Bah of Rupert’s Land.” Manitoba Pageant 6, no. 1 (September 1960). Manitoba Historical Society. < medicalpoohbah.shtml>. Accessed 13 January 2009.

Merrell, James H. “The Indians’ New World: The Catawba Experience.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3d ser., 41, no. 4 (October 1984): 538–65.

Michaels, Pat. “Conspiracy, Consensus or Correlation? What Scientists Think about the ‘Popular Vision’ of Global Warming.” World Climate Review 1 (1993): 11.

Miles, Robert. “Recent Marxist Theories of Nationalism and the Issue of Racism.” British Journal of Sociology 38, no. 1 (1987): 24–43.

Mitchell, Ross. “Doctor John Bunn.” The Beaver 18, no. 3 (December 1938): 50–52.

______. “Dr. John Rae.” Manitoba Pageant 4, no. 1 (September 1958). Manitoba Historical Society. <;. Accessed 13 January 2008.

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Moodie, D.W., and Barry Kaye. “Taming and Domesticating the Native Animals of Rupert’s Land.” The Beaver 56, no. 3 (Winter 1976): 10–19.

Morgan, Kenneth. “Shipping Patterns and the Atlantic Trade of Bristol, 1749–1770.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3d ser.,46, no. 3 (July 1989): 506–38.

Morton, W. L. “The York Boat,” Manitoba Pageant (January 1957). Manitoba Historical Society. <; Accessed 11 February 2009.

______. “The ‘North’ in Canadian History.” Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, 4th ser., 7 (1970): 31–40.

______. Review of The Diary of the Reverend Henry Budd, 1870–1875, edited by Katherine Pettipas. The Beaver 56, no. 3(Winter 1976): 58.

Mulrennan, Monica E., and Colin H. Scott. “Mare Nullius: Indigenous Rights in Saltwater Environments.” Development and Change 31, no. 3 (June 2000): 681–708.

Neal, Katherine. “Mathematics and Empire, Navigation and Exploration: Henry Briggs and the Northwest Passage Voyages of 1631.” Isis93 (2002): 435–53.

“Nelson River District.” The Beaver 19, no. 3 (December 1939): 51.

Nichols, J.W. “Shipwreck in the Straits.” The Beaver 25, no. 4 (March 1946): 17–19.

Nichols, Peter A.C. “Boat-building Eskimos.” The Beaver 34, no. 1 (Summer 1954): 52-55.

“Notes from the National Museum of Canada.” Science, n.s., 72, no. 1854 (11 July 1930): 40–41.

Nute, Grace Lee. “Radisson and Groseilliers.” The Beaver 25, no. 1 (June 1945): 36–41.

______. “The French on the Bay.” The Beaver 37, no. 3 (Winter 1957): 32–37.

Palmer, Michael A. “‘The Soul’s Right Hand’: Command and Control in the Age of Fighting Sail, 1652–1827.” Journal of Military History 61, no. 4 (October 1997): 679–705.

Pannekoek, Frits. “‘Corruption’ at Moose.” The Beaver 58, no. 4 (Spring 1979): 4–11.

Payne, Michael. “‘The Healthiest Part in the Known World’: Prince of Wales’s Fort as Fur Trade Post and Community in the Eighteenth Century.” Transactions, 3d ser., no. 35 (1978–79). Manitoba Historical Society. < transactions/3/princeofwalesfort.shtml> Accessed 12 April 2008.

______. “Fort Churchill, 1821–1900: An Outpost Community in the Fur Trade.” Manitoba History20 (Autumn 1990). Manitoba Historical Society. <http://www.> Accessed 7 April 2008.

______. Review of Voyages in Search of a Northwest Passage 1741-1747, Volume II: The Voyage of William Moor and Francis Smith 1746-1747, ed. William Barr and Glyndwr Williams. Manitoba History 32 (Autumn 1996). Manitoba Historical Society. <; Accessed 3 February 2009.

Pearce, Fred. “Meet the Global Warming Sceptics.” New Scientist 2486 (12 February 2005): 40.

Pincott, K.E. “Garraway’s Coffee House.” The Beaver 11, no. 1 (June 1931): 217–18.

Podruchny, Carolyn. “Unfair Masters and Rascally Servants? Labour Relations among Bourgeois, Clerks and Voyageurs in the Montréal Fur Trade, 1780–1821.” Labour/ Le Travail 43 (Spring 1999): 43–70.

Pognon, E. “Cosmology and cartography,” Arctic 37, no. 4 (December 1984): 334-340,

Pred, Allan. “Social Reproduction and the Time-Geography of Everyday Life.” Geografiska Annaler, ser. B, Human Geography, 63, no. 1 (1981): 5–22.

______. “Place as Historically Contingent Process: Structuration and the Time-Geography of Becoming Places.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 74, no. 2 (June 1984): 279–97.

______. “Comment in Reply: Unglorious Isolation or Unglorious Misrepres(s)entation?” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 75, no. 1 (March 1985): 132–33.

______.  “Interpenetrating Processes: Human Agency and the Becoming of Regional Spatial and Social Structures.” Papers of the Regional Science Association 57, no. 1 (December 1985): 7–17.

Prest, J. “The Great Sea Fight of 1697.” The Beaver 4, no 8 (May 1924): 284–87.

Rae, J.E. “The Hudson’s Bay Company and the North-West Rebellion.” The Beaver 62, no. 1(Summer 1982): 43–57.

Raffety, Matthew. “Recent Currents in the Nineteenth-Century American Maritime History.” History Compass 6, no. 2 (2008): 607–26.

Ramsay, A.A. “Letters from Letitia Hargrave.” Part 1. The Beaver 20, no. 1 (June 1940): 18–19.

Rathbun, John W. “Billy Budd and the Limits of Perception.” Nineteenth-Century Fiction 20, no. 1 (June 1965): 19–34.

Reeves, Randall R., and Susan E. Cosens. “Historical Population Characteristics of Bowhead Whales (Balaena mysticetus)in Hudson Bay.” Arctic56, no. 3 (September 2003): 283–92.

Reimer, Gwen, and Jean-Philippe Chartrand. “Documenting Historic Métis in Ontario.” Ethnohistory 51, no 3 (Summer 2004): 567–607.

Rich, E.E. “The Hudson’s Bay Company’s Activities: Forthcoming Publication of Documents by Hudson’s Bay Record Society.” Pacific Historical Review 7, no. 3 (September 1938): 267–73.

______. “The Colony of Rupert’s Land.” The Beaver 58, no. 1 (Summer 1978): 4–12.

Richardson, John. “Alexander Pope’s Windsor Forest: Its Context and Attitudes toward Slavery.” Eighteenth-Century Studies 35, no. 1 (Autumn 2001): 1–17.

Rodahl, K., and T. Moore. “The vitamin A content and toxicity of bear and seal liver.” Biochemical Journal 37, no. 2 (July 1943): 166–68.

Ross, W. Gillies. “Whaling in Hudson Bay.” Parts 1–3. The Beaver 52, no. 4 (Spring 1973): 4–11; 53, no. 1 (Summer 1973): 40–47;53, no. 2 (Autumn 1973): 52–59.

______. “Distribution, Migration, and Depletion of Bowhead Whales in Hudson Bay, 1860–1915.” Arctic and Alpine Research 6, no. 1 (Winter 1974): 85–98.

______. “Canadian Sovereignty in the Arctic: The NeptuneExpedition of 1903–1904.” Arctic29, no. 2 (June 1976): 87–104.

______. “The Annual Catch of Greenland (Bowhead) Whales in Waters North of Canada 1719–1915: A Preliminary Compilation.” Arctic32, no. 2 (June 1979): 91–121.

______. “George Comer (1858–1937).” Arctic36, no. 3 (September 1983): 294–95.

Rowe, Mary Ellen. “Loisel, Regis (1773?-1804).” In Dictionary of Missouri Biography. Edited by Lawrence O. Christensen. 498. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1999.

Rowland, John T. Rowland. “Mystery at Eric Cove,” The Beaver 30, no. 3 (December 1950): 6–7.

Ruggles, Richard I. “The West of Canada in 1763: Imagination and Reality.” Canadian Geographer 15, no. 4 (1971): 235–61.

______. “Hospital Boys of the Bay.” The Beaver 57, no. 2 (Autumn 1977): 4–11.

______. “Governor Samuel Wegg, Intelligent Layman of the Royal Society, 1753–1802.” Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 32, no. 2 (Mar. 1978): 181–99. Russell, Hilary. “The Chinese Voyage of Angus Bethune.” The Beaver 56, no. 4 (Spring 1977): 22-31.

Sager, Eric W. “Employment Contracts in Merchant Shipping: An Argument for Social Science History.” In On the Case: Explorations in Social History, edited by Franca Iacovetta and Wendy Mitchinson, 49–64. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998.

Salisbury, Neal. “The Indians’ Old World: Native Americans and the Coming of Europeans.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3d ser.,53, no. 3 (July 1996): 435–58.

Sawatzky, H.L., and W.H. Lehn. “The Arctic Mirage and the Early North Atlantic.” Science, n.s.,192, no. 4246 (25 June 1976): 1300–05.

Scott, Joan Wallach. “History in Crisis: The Other’s Side of the Story.” American Historical Review 94, no. 3 (June 1989): 680–92.

Shaw, Edward C. “Captain William Kennedy – An Extraordinary Canadian.” Transactions, 3d ser.,27 (1970–1971). Manitoba Historical Society. <http://www.>  Accessed 9 July 2006.

______. “The Kennedys – An Unusual Western Family.” Transactions, 3d ser., 29 (1972–1973). Manitoba Historical Society. < transactions/3/kennedys.shtml> Accessed 7 October 2008.

Shields, Rob. “Spatial Stress and Resistance: Social Meanings of Spatialization.” In Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity, edited by George Benko and Ulf Strohmayer, 186–202.Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1997.

“Sketches by Lieutenant George E. Finlay, 6th Regiment, 1846–1848.” Manitoba Pageant 12, no. 1(Spring 1969). Manitoba Historical Society. <http://www.mhs. finlaysketches.shtml#01> Accessed 23 October 2007.

Smith, F.C. Goulding. “The Canadian Hydrographical Survey of the Hudson Bay Route.” Geographical Journal 87, no. 2 (February 1936): 127–40.

Smith, Mark M. “Making Sense of Social History.” Journal of Social History 37, no. 1 (Autumn 2003): 165–86.

Smith, Shirlee Anne. “The Steward’s Yarn.” The Beaver 57, no. 4 (Spring 1978): 20–23.

Spraakman, Gary, and Alison Wilkie. “The Development of Management Accounting at the Hudson’s Bay Company, 1670–1820.”Accounting History (May 2000): 59–84.

Sprague, D.N. Review of Promise of Eden: The Canadian Expansionist Movement and the Idea of the West,by Douglas Owram. Manitoba History 4 (1982). Manitoba Historical Society. < shtml> Accessed 19 January 2009.

______. “The Cultural Bias of Metis Studies.” Review of The New Peoples: On Being and Becoming Métis in North America, edited by Jacqueline Peterson and Jennifer S.H. Brown. Prairie Fire 8 (Summer 1987): 66–67.

Steere, William Campbell. “Bryophyta of Arctic America. II.” American Midland Naturalist 21, no. 2 (March 1939): 355–67.

Stevenson, A. “Arctic Fur Trade Rivalry.” The Beaver 55, no. 2 (Autumn 1975): 46–51.

Stewart, Hugh. “A.P. Low (1861–1942).” Arctic 39, no. 3 (September 1986): 274–75.

Stewart, S.J. “Coats Island.” The Beaver 15, no. 3 (December 1935): 38–40.

“Still Trading into Hudson Bay.” The Beaver 13, no. 2(September 1933): 33, 66.

Stocks, J.L. “The Test of Experience.” Mind, n.s., 28, no. 109 (January 1919): 79–81.

Stuart, Ian. “All the King’s Horses: The Study of Canadian Political Culture.” In Canadian Politics,2d ed., edited by James P. Bickerton and Alain-G. Gagnon, 75–92. Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press, 1994.

Sweeny, Robert C.H. “The Staples as the Significant Past: A Case Study in Historical Theory and Method.” In Canada: Theoretical Discourse/Discours théoriques, edited by Terry Goldie, Carmen Lambert, and Rowland Lorimer, 327–49. Montreal: Association for Canadian Studies/Association d’études canadiennes, 1994.

______. “Understanding Work Historically: A Reflection Prompted by Two Recent Studies of the Fur Trade.” Review of Servants of the Honourable Company: Work, Discipline and Conflict in the Hudson’s Bay Company, 1770–1879, by Edith I. Burley, and Trading Beyond the Mountains: The British Fur Trade on the Pacific, by Richard Somerset Mackie. Labour/Le Travail 41 (Spring 1998): 243–52.

Taylor, E.G.R. “Hudson Strait and the Oblique Meridian.” Imago Mundi 3 (1939): 48–52.

Taylor, J. Garth. “The Two Worlds of Mikak.” Parts 1 and 2. The Beaver63, no. 3 (Winter 1983): 4–13; no. 4 (Winter 1983): 18–25.

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Thomas, L.G. “Fur Traders in Retirement.” The Beaver 59, no. 3(Winter 1979): 14–21.

Thomson, Bob. “The Frightful Foggy Dew.” Folk Music Journal 4, no. 1 (1980): 35–61.

Thornton, Thomas F. “Anthropological Studies of Native American Place Naming.” American Indian Quarterly 21, no. 2 (Spring 1997): 209–28.

Tough, Frank. Review of Servants of the Honourable Company: Work, Discipline, and Conflict in the Hudson’s Bay Company, 1770–1879, by Edith I. Burley. Manitoba History 37 (Spring/Summer 1999): 46–51.

Turnbull, David. “Cartography and Science in Early Modern Europe: Mapping the Construction of Knowledge Spaces.” Imago Mundi 48 (1996): 5–24.

Usher, Abbott Payson. “The Growth of English Shipping 1572–1922.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 42, no. 3 (May 1928): 465–78.

Van Kirk, Sylvia. “Thanadalthur.” The Beaver 53, no. 4 (Spring 1974): 40–45.

Vaughan, Alden T. “Sir Walter Ralegh’s Indian Interpreters, 1584–1618.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3d ser.,59, no. 2 (April 2002): 341–76.

Vickers, Daniel. “Beyond Jack Tar.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3d ser., 50, no. 2 (April 1993): 418–24.

Vickers, Daniel, and Vince Walsh. “Young Men and the Sea: The Sociology of Seafaring in Eighteenth-Century Salem, Massachusetts.” Social History 24, no. 1 (January 1999): 18–38.

Viviano, Frank. “China’s Great Armada.” National Geographic 208, no. 1 (July 2005): 28–53.

Warner, Oliver. “Voyaging to York Factory,” The Beaver 37, no. 3 (winter 1957): 18-23.

W[atson], R. “The Indentured Apprentice.” The Beaver 11, no. 1 (June 1931): 226–27.

Watson, Robert. “Henry Kelsey, HBC Explorer.” The Beaver 6, no. 3 (June 1926): 100–101.

Weisaeth, Lars. “Disaster Psychiatry: How Crew React in a Crisis Can Be a Matter of Life or Death.” Beacon 1, no. 184 (2005): 13–15.

Wesling, Donald. “Michel Serres, Bruno Latour, and the Edges of Historical Periods.” Clio 26, no. 2(Winter 1997): 189–204.

White, Hayden. “The Metaphysics of Western Historiography.” Taiwan Journal of East Asian Studies (June 2004): 1–16.

Williams, Glyndwr. “Captain Coats and the East Main.” The Beaver 43, no. 3 (Winter 1963): 4–13.

______. “Highlights, Part 4: Kelsey, Henday, and the Prairies.” The Beaver 50, no. 2 (Autumn 1970): 21–27.

______. “The Hudson’s Bay Company and Its Critics in the Eighteenth Century.” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th ser.,20 (1970): 149–171.

______. “The Indians and the Bay Trade.” The Beaver 63, no. 2 (Autumn 1983): 26–34.

______. “The Simpson Era.” The Beaver 63, no. 2 (Autumn 1983): 51–61.

______. “Arthur Dobbs and Joseph Robson: New Light on the Relationship between Two Early Critics of the Hudson’s Bay Company.” Canadian Historical Review 40, no. 2 (1959): 132–36.

Williamson, A.R. “Voyage of the ‘Discovery’ 1911.” Parts 1 and 2. The Beaver 62, no. 4 (Spring 1983): 12–23; 63, no. 1 (Summer 1983): 20–29.

Wilson, Clifford P. “Forts on the Twin Rivers.” The Beaver 37, no. 3 (Winter 1957): 4–11.

Wilson, Dick. “Below Decks: Seamen and Landsmen Aboard Hudson’s Bay Company Vessels in the Pacific Northwest 1821–1850.” In Papers of the 1994 Rupert’s Land Colloquium, edited by Ian MacLaren, Michael Payne, and Heather Hollason, 26–50.Winnipeg: Centre for Rupert’s Land Studies, 1997.

Wilson, G.P. “Nascopie: The Story of a Ship.” The Beaver 27, no. 2 (September 1947): 3–11.

Wilson, Tuzo. “New Light on Hearne.” The Beaver 29, no. 1 (June 1949): 14–18.

Wolfe, Patrick. “Land, Labor, and Difference: Elemental Structures of Race.” American Historical Review 106, no. 3 (2001): 866–905.

“The York Boat.” The Beaver 11, no. 2 (September 1931): 281–82.

Zurcher, Louis A. “The Sailor Aboard Ship: A Study of Role Behavior in a Total Institution.” Social Forces 43, no. 3 (March 1965): 389–400.

III. Theses, Dissertations, Unpublished Papers

Alwin, John. “Mode, Pattern and Pulse: Hudson’s Bay Company Transport, 1670–1821.” Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Manitoba, 1978.

Clarke, Margaret L. “Reconstituting the Fur Trade Community of the Assiniboine Basin, 1793–1812.” M.A. Thesis. University of Manitoba, 1997.

Hall, Norma Jean. “A ‘Perfect Freedom’: Red River as a Settler Society, 1810–1870.” M.A. Thesis. University of Manitoba, 2003.

Hall, Norma J. “Contesting Identity: A Confrontation with Semantic Paradox in Historiography.” Paper presented to Writing New Histories of Indigeneity and Imperialism: A Workshop. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba, 21 May 2008.

Nigol, Paul C.  “DiscipIine, Discretion and Control: The Private Justice System
of the Hudson’s Bay Company in Rupert’s Land, 1670- 1770,”
Ph.D. dissertation (Calgary: University of Calgary, 2001).

Stephen, Scott P.  “Masters and Servants: The Hudson’s Bay Company and Its Personnel, 1668-1782,” Ph.D. dissertation (Winnipeg: University of Manitoba, 2006).

Troup, James A. “The Impact of the ‘Nor Wast’ on Stromness.” Paper. Centre for Rupert’s Land Studies. Winnipeg: n.d.

Webb, Jeff A. “The Newfoundland and Labrador Field Work of Harold Adams Innis.” Unpublished paper. Memorial University of Newfoundland, 2008.

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______. “Journal Continued, The conclusion of a Winter and Commencement of Summer in Hudson’s Bay A.D. 1816.” Journals of John Maule Hudspeth: Hudson’s Bay and the Voyage home to England, 1816. University of Tasmania Library Special and Rare Materials Collection, Australia.RS1899/D32 2%286%29_John_Hudspeth_Journal_1816.pdf  Accessed 8 October 2008.

“Ice in the Sea.” Chapter 34 in Bowditch – The American Practical Navigator. [I’d Rather Be Sailing]. <; Accessed 10 March 2008.

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Robson, John. “James Cook in the Navy: July to September 1757.” Accessed 21 October 2007.

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Wilson, John Marius. “Gravesend.” Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales (1870–72). A Vision of Britain through Time. Great Britain Historical GIS Project, University of Portsmouth. Accessed 14 November 2007.


“The Golden Age of Sail,” posted to YouTube by MuseeMcCordMuseum, 23 April 2008.

“The Saga Rose Sails Into History,” posted to YouTube by Aaron1912, 15 June 2009.

“The Art of Shipbuilding,” posted to YouTube by Yeoldeboatmuseum 21 November 2008.

‘The Physics of Sailing’ multimedia presentation, KQED Quest science program,

“Noam Chomsky: The Unipolar Moment and the Culture of Imperialism,” posted to You Tube by joefriendly, 3 December 2009. joefriendly explains, “Noam Chomsky delivers the 5th Annual Edward Said Memorial Lecture … at Columbia University School for International Affairs for the Heyman Center for the Humanities … paying homage to Edward Said’s stressing imperialism as central to our culture …”


2 Responses to bibliography 4: Icy Seas History

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